Topic 9 - Conflicts and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 9 - Conflicts and Development Deck (11)
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1
Q

Is all conflict violent?

A

No, can be violent or non-violent. Importance thing is that conflict is active

2
Q

What is Violent (Armed) Conflict|?

A

Fighting between 2 or more groups of people or countries

3
Q

What are Non-Violent Conflicts? (AIMS)

A

Seeks to liquidate antagonisms, but not the
antagonists

  • Conversion via persuasion
  • Still costly for things even development
4
Q

What are the 5 ways Violent (Armed) Conflicts are classified by?

A

Measured by conflict intensity

  1. Weapons - Employment and Type (Light to Heavy)
  2. Personnel (Low,Med,High)
  3. Casualities (Low,Med,High)
  4. Refugees and Displaced Persons (IDPs) (Low,Mid,High)
  5. Lvl of destruction (Low,Mid,High)
5
Q

Who are the typical actors of conflict?

A

o Interstate conflicts only involve internationally recognized state actors

o Intrastate conflicts involve both state actors and non-state actors

o Sub-state conflicts are carried out solely among non-state actors

o Trans-state conflicts involve both state and non-state actors and meet the criteria of political conflict for at least

6
Q

What are some potential consequences of Conflict on Development?

A
1. Human Capital Costs 
(E.G Yemen,Nigeria Chibok Abductions)-> Health and Education
2. Material/Wealth Costs
3. Impacts on poverty and inequality
4. Social Cohesion Costs
5. Behavioural Implications
-> Damaged Trust,Displaced peoples
7
Q

What are some of the Socio-Econ and Political Causes to conflict?

A
  1. Opp cost -> Formal labour mkts fail the youth
  2. Repressive State Capacity Arguments -> Low national income = Weak military and worse infrastructure = Harder to stop insurgencies
  3. Income Inequality -> Higher inequality = Higher resentment = Tension
  4. Non-income inequality
    - > Horizontal Inequality
8
Q

What are some of the Natural Resources to conflict?

A
  1. Natural Resources and Basic Needs -> Scarcity or lack of access to basic necessities
  2. Paradox of Plenty-> Dutch Disease
  3. Control of natural resources -> ‘Blood Diamonds’
9
Q

What is the Dutch Disease Problem?

A

-> Situation occurred in Netherlands following large amounts of natural gas.

  1. A nation finds ample natural resource reserves
  2. Economic focus begins to target this high-income industry
  3. Skilled workers from other sectors transfer to the resource sector
  4. Higher wages make the national currency less competitive (higher prices)
  5. Other industries, especially the manufacturing sector, begin to suffer

Endogeneity problem (X causes Y)

10
Q

What is the importance of institution in the resolution and prevention of armed conflcts?

A
  • Faction more likely for dialogue/compromise with credible institutions
  • Institutions promoting win/lose situation not help -> i.e Trinidad and Tobago ethnic tensions
  • Likelihood of relapse with weak (non-credible) institutions;
  • Safe-guarding against foreign powers (with personal interests)
  • Military expenditure debate? (More or less?)
11
Q

What are some other resolutions to Conflict?

A

1.Limit (or eliminate) incentives for conflict
=>In presence of incentives to renege, conflict will return
2. Global Peace brokers
3. Regional Peace Brokers
4. National Peace Brokers
5. Mutually Agreed Power sharing
6. Local Community Driven Initiatives/econ development -> I.e the bike path through the Balkans to improve social ties in Balkan states