Flashcards in 11. Doing qualitative research Deck (74):
a parttern or model
what is the positivist paradigm of social research
to discover universal laws
to predict and control events
what is the constructionist paradigm of social research?
to understand social life and how people construct meanings
what is the paradigm or logic of quantitative research?
deductive approaches to theory
what is the paradigm or logic of qualitative research?
build knowledge inductively
what are the design characteristics of quantitative research
fixed to control for extraneous variables
what are the design characteristics of qualitative research
flexible responds to context naturalistic enquiry
what are the methods of quantitative research?
what are the methods of qualitative research?
in-depth interviews (narratives and stories)
analysis of text/images/videos
what is the analysis for quantitative research?
use frequencies and statistics
what are the analysis methods for qualitative research?
non-numerical analysis of text focus on underlying meanings and patterns of reltionships
what is the sample seeking to generalise to in quantitative research?
generalise to population
what is the sample seeking to generalise in qualitative research?
generalisation to theory
what guides the research process
what does the research process aim to do?
aims ot understand local knowledge and practices
what is the starting point of sensitising concepts?
what questions do qualitative approaches aim to answer?
what is the qualiatative approach used for?
answering why and how questions
one of few cases
subjective experience and meaning
what is the basic process of qualitative research?
theoretical framework --> research design and methodology --> research methods
what does one paradigm equal?
several theoretical frameworks
what is the interpretative approach
an approach that is interests in in depth investigation of subjective meanings and experiences
what are methods of the interpretative approach
what is the critical approach?
an approach that is interested in how social, cultural and historical discourses shape (and are shaped) by subjective meanings and experiences
what are the fundamental topics that the critical approaches aim to address?
psychoanalytic and Marxist analysis
what are research designs in qualitative research?
action research (and other participatory designs)
(multiple-)case study research
what does ethnography focus on?
the discovery and description of the culture of a group of people
what is the root of ethnography?
what is ethnography a study of?
a detailed study of groups in their natural setting
what is the researcher in ethnographic studies?
a stranger to the situation being studied. he is immersed in the fields for extended periods of time
what are is the fundamental method of ethnographic research?
there are a variety of methods by usually includes participants and observations
what do case study research focus on?
focuses on providing a detailed description and account of one or more cases
what is a case?
a case is a bounded & integrated system, it is a 'thing', not a process or relationship
what are case studies with multiple cases?
collective or comparative cast studies
what is a case study?
an in-depth analysis of one case or selected cases to maximise diversity
what methods are used for case study?
a variety of methods to examine the functioning of a case or multiple cases
what is action research>
a form of collective self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social and education practices, as well as their understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out.
when is an approach only action research
if it is collaborative
how is the action research of the group achieved?
through the critically examined action of the individual group members
what is the cycle of action research?
observing --> reflecting
goes in a circle
what is involved in the cycle planning in action research?
what is involved in acting in the cycle action research
what is involved in observing in the cycle action research?
what is involved in reflecting in the cycle of action research?
what are the two categories of research methods in qualitative research?
obtrusive methods and unobtrusive methods
what are obtrusive methods?
o focus groups
o photos, video recordings, diaries
o mobile methods (e.g. walking tours, map making)
what are unobtrusive methods?
documented and records (private and archival)
artefacts, physical traces
what is a research interview
discussion between researcher and the participant to elicit participant's perspective
can be face to face or via technology
what are the three structures of research interviews?
what are the characteristics of unstructured research interviews?
no interview protocol, merely general theme(s)
guided by interviewee's answers
keep in mind research aim and question
plenty of space for clarification
what are the characteristics of semi-structured research interviews?
interview protocol with themes and questions (mostly open-ended)
guided by interviewee's questions within each theme
cme back to the protocol when each theme is exhausted
enough space for clarification
what are the characteristics of structured research interview?
strict interview protocol with precise questions (often closed)
interviewee has little/no space to influence how question is asked
no space for clarification
what is a focus group
a small number of non-randomly selected people, drawn together by the researcher in order to facilitate the expression of their view on a specific set of issues and/or their responses to specific and/or general questions, within a casual by predetermined and managed group environment wherein interaction is important
what is the common duration of focus groups
how many people are often in a focus group?
who leads the discussion?
the moderator (researcher)
what can take over the focus group?
what is an issue of focus groups?
participants may be group shu
what do focus groups require with the researcher?
great researcher skill and tact
what are observations associated with?
field research e.g. ethnography
what can observations provide?
observing behaviour/practices can provide insight into social processes and practices. what people do rather than what they say they do
how do observation approaches differ?
relationship between researcher and observed
what are common observation methods?
what is naturalistic observation
takes place in the field of naturalistic environment where the behaviour naturally occurs
when is naturalistic observations commonly used
as part of an ethnographic study
where does systematic observation take place?
in the field
what tools does a researcher use in a systematic observation?
systematic tools such as questionnaires or checklists to support their observatins
what methods are involved in systematic observations
time or event sampling
where do controlled observations take place
takes place in a lab that is set up to evoke the behaviour of participants
what do participants get in controlled observations
they all get an equal chance to displace behavipur
what are the four types of researcher involvement in observations?
observer as participant
participant as observer
what is a complete observer
a secret outsider, invisible to those being observed.
what is an observer as a participant?
researcher is known, but has limited contact
what is participant as observer
researcher is known and has a relationship with the participants
involved, but not leader of activities