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Flashcards in 11. Doing qualitative research Deck (74):
1

define paradigm

a parttern or model

2

what is the positivist paradigm of social research

to discover universal laws
to predict and control events

3

what is the constructionist paradigm of social research?

to understand social life and how people construct meanings

4

what is the paradigm or logic of quantitative research?

positivism
deductive approaches to theory
test theory

5

what is the paradigm or logic of qualitative research?

social constructionism
build knowledge inductively
generate theory

6

what are the design characteristics of quantitative research

fixed to control for extraneous variables

7

what are the design characteristics of qualitative research

flexible responds to context naturalistic enquiry

8

what are the methods of quantitative research?

experimental design
surveys
structured observations

9

what are the methods of qualitative research?

in-depth interviews (narratives and stories)
naturalistic observations
analysis of text/images/videos

10

what is the analysis for quantitative research?

use frequencies and statistics

11

what are the analysis methods for qualitative research?

non-numerical analysis of text focus on underlying meanings and patterns of reltionships

12

what is the sample seeking to generalise to in quantitative research?

generalise to population

13

what is the sample seeking to generalise in qualitative research?

generalisation to theory

14

what guides the research process

sensitising conceps

15

what does the research process aim to do?

aims ot understand local knowledge and practices

16

what is the starting point of sensitising concepts?

research question

17

what questions do qualitative approaches aim to answer?

why?
How?

18

what is the qualiatative approach used for?

answering why and how questions
one of few cases
subjective experience and meaning
theory building

19

what is the basic process of qualitative research?

theoretical framework --> research design and methodology --> research methods

20

what does one paradigm equal?

several theoretical frameworks

21

what is the interpretative approach

an approach that is interests in in depth investigation of subjective meanings and experiences

22

what are methods of the interpretative approach

phenomenoloy
narrative approaches
ethnomenthadology

23

what is the critical approach?

an approach that is interested in how social, cultural and historical discourses shape (and are shaped) by subjective meanings and experiences

24

what are the fundamental topics that the critical approaches aim to address?

feminism
psychosocial studies
psychoanalytic and Marxist analysis

25

what are research designs in qualitative research?

ethnography
action research (and other participatory designs)
(multiple-)case study research

26

what does ethnography focus on?

the discovery and description of the culture of a group of people

27

what is the root of ethnography?

social anthropology

28

what is ethnography a study of?

a detailed study of groups in their natural setting

29

what is the researcher in ethnographic studies?

a stranger to the situation being studied. he is immersed in the fields for extended periods of time

30

what are is the fundamental method of ethnographic research?

there are a variety of methods by usually includes participants and observations

31

what do case study research focus on?

focuses on providing a detailed description and account of one or more cases

32

what is a case?

a case is a bounded & integrated system, it is a 'thing', not a process or relationship

33

what are case studies with multiple cases?

collective or comparative cast studies

34

what is a case study?

an in-depth analysis of one case or selected cases to maximise diversity

35

what methods are used for case study?

a variety of methods to examine the functioning of a case or multiple cases

36

what is action research>

a form of collective self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social and education practices, as well as their understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out.

37

when is an approach only action research

if it is collaborative

38

how is the action research of the group achieved?

through the critically examined action of the individual group members

39

what is the cycle of action research?

planning -->
acting -->
observing --> reflecting

goes in a circle

40

what is involved in the cycle planning in action research?

identifying
informing
organising

41

what is involved in acting in the cycle action research

trailing
collecting
questioning

42

what is involved in observing in the cycle action research?

analysing
reporting
sharing

43

what is involved in reflecting in the cycle of action research?

evaluating
implementing
revisiting

44

what are the two categories of research methods in qualitative research?

obtrusive methods and unobtrusive methods

45

what are obtrusive methods?

o interviews
o focus groups
o observations
o photos, video recordings, diaries
o mobile methods (e.g. walking tours, map making)
o photo/video-elicitation

46

what are unobtrusive methods?

documented and records (private and archival)
artefacts, physical traces

47

what is a research interview

discussion between researcher and the participant to elicit participant's perspective
can be face to face or via technology

48

what are the three structures of research interviews?

unstructured
semi-structured
structured

49

what are the characteristics of unstructured research interviews?

no interview protocol, merely general theme(s)
guided by interviewee's answers
keep in mind research aim and question
plenty of space for clarification

50

what are the characteristics of semi-structured research interviews?

interview protocol with themes and questions (mostly open-ended)
guided by interviewee's questions within each theme
cme back to the protocol when each theme is exhausted
enough space for clarification

51

what are the characteristics of structured research interview?

strict interview protocol with precise questions (often closed)
interviewee has little/no space to influence how question is asked
no space for clarification

52

what is a focus group

a small number of non-randomly selected people, drawn together by the researcher in order to facilitate the expression of their view on a specific set of issues and/or their responses to specific and/or general questions, within a casual by predetermined and managed group environment wherein interaction is important

53

what is the common duration of focus groups

90-120 minutes

54

how many people are often in a focus group?

6-12 people

55

who leads the discussion?

the moderator (researcher)

56

what can take over the focus group?

'group think'

57

what is an issue of focus groups?

participants may be group shu

58

what do focus groups require with the researcher?

great researcher skill and tact

59

what are observations associated with?

field research e.g. ethnography

60

what can observations provide?

observing behaviour/practices can provide insight into social processes and practices. what people do rather than what they say they do

61

how do observation approaches differ?

relationship between researcher and observed
structure

62

what are common observation methods?

naturalistic
systematic
controlled

63

what is naturalistic observation

takes place in the field of naturalistic environment where the behaviour naturally occurs

64

when is naturalistic observations commonly used

as part of an ethnographic study

65

where does systematic observation take place?

in the field

66

what tools does a researcher use in a systematic observation?

systematic tools such as questionnaires or checklists to support their observatins

67

what methods are involved in systematic observations

time or event sampling

68

where do controlled observations take place

takes place in a lab that is set up to evoke the behaviour of participants

69

what do participants get in controlled observations

they all get an equal chance to displace behavipur

70

what are the four types of researcher involvement in observations?

complete observer
observer as participant
participant as observer
complete participant

71

what is a complete observer

a secret outsider, invisible to those being observed.
non-intrusive

72

what is an observer as a participant?

recognised outsider
researcher is known, but has limited contact

73

what is participant as observer

researcher is known and has a relationship with the participants
involved, but not leader of activities

74

what is complete particpant

full participant
researcher acts as a member
may be a leader of activities
shares secret information with participants