Geography END OF YEAR EXAM Revision Flashcards Preview

Year 9 End Of Year Exam Revision > Geography END OF YEAR EXAM Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in Geography END OF YEAR EXAM Revision Deck (100)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Magnitude

A

How large an event is

2
Q

Difference between natural event and natural hazard

A

Natural hazards carry a risk to life, natural events don’t

3
Q

Frequency

A

How often an event occurs

4
Q

Focus

A

Point underground where the earthquake starts

5
Q

Epicentre

A

Point on the surface where the most damage will be caused from the earthquake

6
Q

Seismometer

A

Machine that measures the shaking of the ground from an earthquake

7
Q

Constructive Boundary

A

Where two tectonic plates move apart

8
Q

Destructive Boundary

A

Where two tectonic plates move together, usually an oceanic and a continental, where the oceanic slips below the continental plate (subduction)

9
Q

Conservative Boundary

A

Where two tectonic plates slide past each other

10
Q

Hazard risk

A

The probability that a hazard will take place

11
Q

Natural factors

A

Natural factors, that effect hazard risk

12
Q

Inner core temp

A

7000°C

13
Q

Outer core temp

A

4000°C

14
Q

Mantle temp

A

1000°C

15
Q

Convection currents in the mantle: Step 1

A

Rock in the mantle is heated up

16
Q

Convection currents in the mantle: Step 2

A

Heated rock rises as it is less dense

17
Q

Convection currents in the mantle: Step 3

A

The semi molten rock spreads out, moving the tectonic plates

18
Q

Convection currents in the mantle: Step 4

A

The rock cools and sinks back down towards the core

19
Q

Oceanic crust rock type

A

Basalt

20
Q

Continental crust rock type

A

Granite

21
Q

Which is more dense? Oceanic Crust or Continental Crust

A

Oceanic

22
Q

Which is renewable and can be destroyed? Oceanic Crust or continental Crust

A

Oceanic

23
Q

Which is deeper? Oceanic crust or Continental

A

Continental

24
Q

Destructive plate boundary landforms and hazards

A

Volcanoes, earthquakes and oceanic trenches

25
Q

Constructive plate boundaries landforms and hazards

A

Small volcanoes and oceanic ridges

26
Q

Conservative plate boundary landforms and hazards

A

Earthquakes, but NO LANDFORMS

27
Q

Destructive plate boundary example

A

Pacific ring of fire

28
Q

Constructive plate boundary example

A

Mid Atlantic ridge

29
Q

Conservative plate boundary example

A

San Andreas fault

30
Q

Conservative Boundary Earthquakes happen when…

A

Two plates slide next to each other in opposite directions, until they get stuck. Pressure builds up until one plate gives way releasing seismic waves causing an earthquake.

31
Q

Richter Scale

A

Logarithmic scale measuring the amount of energy released by an earthquake

32
Q

Mercalli Scale

A

Scale for earthquakes based on a description NOT ENERGY released

33
Q

Primary effects

A

Direct results of the event eg. Buildings collapse

34
Q

Secondary effects

A

Results of primary effects eg. Homelessness

35
Q

Christchurch earthquake basic info

A

2011, 6.3 on Richter Scale, destructive plate boundary

36
Q

Christchurch earthquake effects

A

185 dead, 4000 injured, 50% of buildings in the city centre severely damaged, 100s km of sewage pipes destroyed, 10,000 homeless

37
Q

Nepal earthquake responses

A

15,000 temporary learning centres, millions on litres of water provided, Facebook safety check

38
Q

Nepal earthquake basic info

A

2015, 7.9 Richter Scale, Poor country - not prepared

39
Q

Nepal earthquake effects

A

8,000 deaths, 14,500 injured,130k homes destroyed, 28 million homeless

40
Q

Positives of living near high risk zones

A

Near minerals, source of tourism, fertile soil, geothermal energy

41
Q

Tiltmeter

A

Checks for movement in the rocks

42
Q

Building protection for earthquakes

A

Steel frames, deep foundations, automatic window shutters, rubber shock absorbers

43
Q

Safe building shapes

A

Pyramids and domes

44
Q

Type of mountain from destructive plate boundaries (only collision)

A

Fold mountains

45
Q

Christchurch plate boundary is between

A

Australian plate and Pacific Plate

46
Q

Globalisation

A

Process through which the world appears to become increasingly interconnected

47
Q

Shrinking World

A

Idea that the world feels increasingly smaller

48
Q

TNC

A

Trans National Company

49
Q

HIC

A

High income country

50
Q

LIC

A

Low income country

51
Q

Primary Sector

A

Type of employment that involves the extraction of raw materials

52
Q

Secondary sector

A

Type of employment which involves turning raw materials into a product (manufacturing)

53
Q

Tertiary sector

A

Type of employment which is high paid and focused on delivering a service

54
Q

NEE

A

Newly emerging economy

55
Q

Aid

A

Movement of money and/or resources from one place to another to help the revciever

56
Q

MDGs

A

Millennium Development Goals

57
Q

Example of globalisation: Wimbledon Tennis Ball

A

10 different countries contributed into making each tennis ball, rather than one country manufacturing it alone

58
Q

Why do countries import materials and manufacture goods from/in other countries

A

Lack of resources in their own countries, cheaper labour, lack of willing workers in their own country

59
Q

Reasons why the world seems smaller

A

People are more connected through technology, people can travel further and faster, higher global population, everywhere on Earth has been discovered

60
Q

Nike case study, facts before exposure

A

Wage: 65p a day, used chemicals that can cause cancer, untrained workers with dangerous machinery, 16 hours a day, 7 days a week

61
Q

Nike case study, facts after exposure

A

100 people monitoring conditions, public findings, free meals, still bad pay, still overtime hours

62
Q

Positives of TNCs

A

Provides jobs and new skills, more money spent into the economy, local companies benefit from increased orders

63
Q

Negatives of TNCs

A

Workers sometimes poorly paid, sometimes poor working conditions, local businesses suffer from loss of customers

64
Q

Interdependence

A

Countries relying on each other to provide goods, money, people or services

65
Q

Positives of globalisation

A

Allows customers in HICs to have lots of stuff at lower prices, allows TNCs to exist, allows trade between countries and governments, social media, Google/instant knowledge, quicker advancements in technology, shrinking world

66
Q

Negatives of globalisation

A

Not always good for the environment, smaller companies cannot compete with TNCs, cheap labour, bad working conditions, everywhere is the same

67
Q

Fairtrade

A

An organisation the helps workers in the primary sector, get the money they deserve for their goods

68
Q

Why trade globally

A

Cheaper, wider range of products, weather guarantee

69
Q

Shipping containers allowed…

A

More products to be traded faster, since before containerisation things were transported in boxes and barrels, which took up lots of time.

70
Q

2 examples of aid

A

Emergency aid, Bilateral aid

71
Q

Negatives of aid

A

Could lead to dependence on aid by receivers, the wrong aid can be sent, meaning money is spent on stuff that isn’t needed

72
Q

List of MDGs

A
  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  2. Achieve universal primary education
  3. Promote gender equality and empower women
  4. Reduce child mortality
  5. Improve maternal health
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  7. Ensure environmental sustainability
  8. Develop a global partnership for development
73
Q

Goal 4 involved reducing the ??? by ???.

A

Under 5 mortality rate by two thirds

74
Q

MDG Goal 4 was ??? since ??? in 2019

A

not met, 5.2 million children died

75
Q

Natural Hazard

A

A natural event that threatens people or has the potential to cause damage, destruction and death

76
Q

Mantle

A

Semi-molten part of Earth’s structure below the crust

77
Q

Coriolis effect

A

The effect that causes tropical storms to spin and move away from the equator

78
Q

Tectonic hazard examples

A

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis

79
Q

Atmospheric hazard examples

A

Hurricanes, heat waves, flooding, drought

80
Q

Geomorphical hazard example

A

Landslides

81
Q

High pressure

A

When the air is sinking

82
Q

Low pressure

A

When the air rises

83
Q

Air moves from ??? to ??? pressure

A

High, low

84
Q

Hurricane Katrina primary effects

A

1,500 deaths, thousands of homes destroyed, 3 million people without electricity

85
Q

Hurricane Katrina secondary effects

A

$300 billion to repair, criminals looted homes, tourism badly affected

86
Q

Hurricane Katrina basic info

A

Category 4, started August 24th 2005, there was an evacuation - but it was slow

87
Q

The centre of a tropical storm

A

The eye

88
Q

Barrier surrounding the eye of a tropical storm

A

Eye wall

89
Q

Tropical storms rotate…

A

Clockwise

90
Q

Typhoon Haiyan basic info

A

Most powerful storm to hit land ever, November 2013, category 5, wind speeds of 275km/h

91
Q

Typhoon Haiyan primary effects

A

6,500 killed, 90% of Tacloban destroyed, 30,000 fishing boats destroyed

92
Q

Typhoon Haiyan secondary effects

A

14 million affected, 6 million jobs lost, looting and violence in Tacloban

93
Q

Typhoon Haiyan responses

A

‘Cash for work’ programmes put in place (people are paid to clear up debris and rebuild buildings), permanent shelters build for future storms

94
Q

Extreme weather

A

When weather is significantly different from the average or usual weather pattern

95
Q

Weather

A

Current conditions in a certain place

96
Q

Climate

A

Average weather experienced over 30 years or more

97
Q

Types of UK weather hazards

A

Prolonged rain, heavy snowfall, strong winds, thunderstorms, drought/heat wave

98
Q

Why is the amount of tropical storms that happen increasing?

A

As the global temperature rises, the ocean temperature rises, so that it is at the right temperature for a tropical storm to happen more often

99
Q

The Beast from the East basic info

A

February-March 2018, came from Russia, met storm Emma which made conditions worse

100
Q

The Beast from the East effects

A

10 deaths, 70mph winds, hundreds stranded on motorways for up to 36 hours, thousands of homes without power