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Flashcards in week 6: Middle Ages and Renaissance Deck (99)
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1
Q

was was the ‘monoepiscopal’ model of church?

A

a single bishop had authority over christian priests and congregations in a specified area, bishops now gaining spiritual authority over specific geographical areas

2
Q

what kind of authority did priests now have?

A

both spiritual and political

3
Q

by the middle of the fourth century where had metropolitan bishops emerged?

A

Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch

4
Q

what was the perception of the bishop of Rome?

A

that he stood above other bishops and churches by convention, as Rome was ‘the eternal city’ and Peter and Paul were martyred and buried in Rome.

5
Q

what title was the bishop of Rome given

A

Pope

6
Q

who isolated the term ‘pope’ to the bishop of Rome?

A

Sicicius pope from 384-99

7
Q

when did Popes come to play an important role in negotiation with invaders

A

after emperors had abandoned Rome in the face of Visigoth threat in the first decade of the fifth century but popes remained

8
Q

were military campaigns by Constantinople to incorporate Italy back into the eastern empire in the sixth century successful?

A

no

9
Q

in the seventh century, what had Byzantium established in regards to Italy?

A

a large territory which formed a diagonal band from northeaster Italy to Rome and Naples in the South west.

10
Q

despite Byzantium territorial gain in Italy in the seventh century, why was the pope able to continue his political and social influence?

A

because the emperor struggled to assert authority in the western parts of Italy

11
Q

by the end of the sixth century, what was the only international organisation in Western Europe to have survived the collapse of the Roman Empire?

A

the church

12
Q

when was Gregory the Great Pope?

A

590-604

13
Q

How did Gregory the Great increase christianises reach and influence, outside of the church of Italy?

A

sending a mission of benedictine monks to convert the pagan Anglo-Saxons.

14
Q

what model of church government did Gregory the Great establish

A

the country was divided up into dioceses each ruled by. bishop, bishops accountable to archbishops and archbishops accountable to the Pope

15
Q

Where did Gregory the Great want to locate his archbishop?

A

London, but eventually it ended up being in Canterbury, Kent

16
Q

would the form of christianity that Gregory introduced in England be subject to local control?

A

no, under the control of the Pope in Rome

17
Q

where did English missionaries bring their new model of church government in the eighth century?

A

to Germany and France consolidating the authority of the pope over Western European churches

18
Q

what were the Papal States

A

lands owned and controlled by the papacy

19
Q

what was the outcome of Frankish ruler Pepin the Short giving lands he had conquered in northern Italy to the Pope?

A

establishing a region over which the Pope had both temporal and spiritual power

20
Q

where are the Celtic regions of Europe?

A

Ireland, Scotland, Cornwall, Brittany, Wales

21
Q

which Celtic region established itself as a major missionary centre during the fifth and sixth centuries?

A

Ireland

22
Q

who is often regarded as responsible for the evangelisation of Ireland?

A

Magonus Sacatus Patricius - Patrick (c. 390-460)

23
Q

Patrick’s background?

A

Captured in Wales and sold as a slave, escaped and returned home after six years in captivity. unsure what happened in between escape and return home, some suggest he spent time familiarising with monasticism in regions of southern France

24
Q

what allowed noble families in Ireland to become integrated into monastic structures?

A

it had no permanent settlements as it was primarily a nomadic society

25
Q

what was the Irish mode of Christianity seen as?

A

a threat to the Roman model of the episcopate in which the government of the church resided firmly in the hands of bishops

26
Q

what did abbots of Iona reject

A

bishops to formally ordain them

27
Q

what are Abbeys

A

responsible for the pastoral care of churches which grew up in their vicinity

28
Q

what were Celtic church leaders openly critical of

A

worldly wealth and status and any form of luxury

29
Q

theologically what did Celtic christianity stress?

A

the importance of the world of nature as a means of knowing God

30
Q

what were the main purpose of Irish monasteries

A

they were centres for missionary activity, often using sea lanes as channels for the transmission of christianity

31
Q

what did Columba do?

A

brought christianity from the north of Ireland to the Western isles of Scotland and established the abbey of Iona as a missionary outpost

32
Q

from Iona where did christianity spread?

A

southwards and eastwards

33
Q

what did Celtic christianity make difficult?

A

threatened the authority of Rome and thus would make it difficult to make christianity culturally acceptable and to make monasticism the norm from christian living.

34
Q

what was the outcome of of Augustine of Cantabury being sent to England in 597?

A

evangelised the English causing tensions between roman forms of christianity in southern England verses the Celtic traditions in the north

35
Q

by when had christianity spread throughout much of the Middle East?

A

by 600 including regions of western North Africa

36
Q

what changed the status of Christianity in the Middle East and the belief system of the Arab people?

A

The rise of Islam based on teachings of Muhammad (570-632)

37
Q

why was islam spread so quickly after Muhammad’s death in 632?

A

military conquest and the weakness of surrounding regions which were often exhausted by tensions with neighbouring regions

38
Q

640-643- where did the first islamic expansion reach?

A

Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine , Egypt, Persian empire

39
Q

which three of the five metropolitan sees of the ‘pentarchy’ were now in islamic hands

A

Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch

40
Q

where was the second islamic expansion?

A

islamic armies moved westwards along the North African coast and crossed straits of Gibraltar, establishing presence in Spain

41
Q

what defeated the islamic expansion in Europe?

A

Arab army defeated by Franks at the battle of tours 732

42
Q

why was Spain so significant in the sixth/ seventh century?

A

meeting pint form both Ilam and christianity, would play important role in the medieval Christian discovery of classical philosophy and science

43
Q

what did Islam encourage christian theologians to do?

A

develop their ideas concerning the nature of God

44
Q

who were the franks?

A

group of Germanic tribes who set up a stable kingdom between the Rhine and Loire rivers

45
Q

what was the ‘Holy Empire’

A

a new political entity straddling the regions of Italy, France, Germany. this consolidation of power was closely linked with the church

46
Q

why was papal acceptation important for Charlemagne?

A

it helped secure wider acceptance of their authority

47
Q

what was Charlemagne crowned in 799?

A

‘emperor of the romans’

48
Q

why was Charlemagne being crowned ‘emperor of the Roams’ so significant?

A

a new Christianised western roman empire was being established which insured the church was firmly embedded in the new social order

49
Q

what was one of charlemagnes most significant achievement?

A

reversing the islamic advance into South Western Europe

50
Q

what had monasteries become in the eighth and ninth century?

A

centres of learning and culture

51
Q

where were centres of distinction and scholarship?

A

monasteries and cathedrals which had schools attached

52
Q

why was it important that the clergy continued to be educated even after the collapse of the western empire?

A

important to have a literate clergy capable of writing and possessing basic administrative skills, there was also just a deep desire to keep the culture of learning alive

53
Q

where were the earliest cathedral schools developed in the sixth century

A

spain

54
Q

where in England did cathedral schools first develop?

A

Canterbury (597) Rochester (604) in the south, soon followed by a major school at York Minster in the north (627)

55
Q

where was the third wave of cathedral schools?

A

France

56
Q

what would the cathedral school of Paris become?

A

the university of Paris in the twelfth century

57
Q

who were cathedral schools under the control of?

A

bishops and generally focused on educating the clergy

58
Q

what was the scriptorium?

A

a special room of the library dedicated to copying of manuscripts for ease of transmission

59
Q

what does ‘monophysite’ mean?

A

single nature

60
Q

what does ‘miaphysite’ mean?

A

one nature

61
Q

what term was used by those who disapproved of what was agreed at Chalcedon?

A

Miaphysite

62
Q

what did the divide between those who vouched for one nature of Jesus and those who vouched for two natures cause?

A

a schism between orthodox christian churches in Europe

63
Q

what were ‘iconoclastic’ controversies of the eighth century?

A

Eastern Orthodoxy saw icons as windows to perception but this practice came under great criticism. it was questioned whether it was legitimate to create images of christ for the purposes of devotion

64
Q

when was the first iconoclastic controversy take place?

A

around 730, when emperor Leo III ordered the removal of Image of christ that was prominently placed over the ceremonial entrance to the Great Palace of Constantinople

65
Q

what influenced criticism of iconography?

A

the rise of islam

66
Q

what did John of Damascus say about Iconoclasm?

A

that the incarnation gave us theological rationale for the use of icons

67
Q

when did Leo’s hostility towards icons come to an end?

A

it was ended by empress Irene in 787

68
Q

when was iconoclasm revived?

A

815

69
Q

who ended iconoclasm for a second time?

A

empress Theodora 843

70
Q

by the ninth century where was the most important centres of learning

A

the monastery of Corbie

71
Q

two scholars who opposed each other on matters of the real presence

A

Radbertus (died 865) Ratrammus (died 868)

72
Q

what did radbertus say about bread and wine

A

literally represented Jesus’ blood and body

73
Q

what did Ratrammus say about bread and wine

A

just symbols of Jesus’ blood and body

74
Q

what was the difference between ordinary bread and consecrated bread?

A

consecrated bread was what a believer allowed bread to become by perceiving a deeper spiritual meaning as a result of its consecration

75
Q

what two debates happened at the monastery of corbie?

A

debates of the real presence and predestination

76
Q

where did the debate of predestination come from?

A

unresolved theological questions of grace developed by Augustine

77
Q

what were some of the debated questions about predestination?

A

did God predestine some people to damnation or did God fail to predestine salvation for them?

78
Q

how did Augustine see predestination?

A

as active and positive and a chance to redeem for God

79
Q

what did augustines critics say about his predestination

A

that whilst God will redeem some, he is choosing to not redeem others

80
Q

when was the great predestination controversy?

A

ninth century

81
Q

who developed the first model of double predestination?

A

Benedictine monk Godesalc of Orbais (804-869)

82
Q

who did Godescalc say that Jesus died for?

A

the elect

83
Q

by the ninth century why did southeastern Europe (Buglers, Magyars) find themselves in a difficult political situation?

A

their west was powerful Frankish Empire and their east was powerful Byzantine Empire

84
Q

what was the difference between the christianity of the Frankish Empire and The Byzantine Empire?

A

Franks were catholic and Constantinople was Orthodox

85
Q

what role did the church play in the Carolingian renaissance?

A

a pattern of arts and scholarship and creed a stabilising influence on society as a whole

86
Q

under who’s reign was papal influence at a high

A

Nicolas I, pope from 858-67

87
Q

why was the Carolingian renaissance temporary?

A

after charlemegnes death, his empire began to fragment, warlords and barons took ownership of their own regions and converted them into personal fiefdoms.

88
Q

after the death of Charlemagne who were bishops appointed by?

A

warlords with the expectation that they would earn spiritual and political benefits in return

89
Q

what was ‘simony’

A

the election of bishops on the basis that they will favour the warlords who elected them

90
Q

when Nicolas I died what followed?

A

a series of corrupt and weak popes, elected and controlled by aristocratic families

91
Q

who ended the corrupt era of popes

A

emperor Otto I

92
Q

which pope did Otto I depose?

A

John XII pope from 955-964

93
Q

who did Otto I appoint as pope?

A

Leo VIII

94
Q

when was the Benedictine monastery of Cluny founded?

A

909 by William I in Burgundy

95
Q

what was the monastery of Cluny

A

a self governing community directly under the control of the pop who was unlikely to interfere with affairs as it was far from Rome.

96
Q

who were constantly in deep political rivalry?

A

the pope in Rome and the emperor of Constantinople

97
Q

what did western theologians think the second council of Nicaea 787 was advocating

A

the worship of idols

98
Q

what do many scholars argue that the final breaking point was between the east and west in the ninth century

A

Leo IX of Rome enforcement of western norms in the southern Italian churches was seen as an attempt to claim papal sovereignty over the entire church

99
Q

what did Cerularius emperor of Constantinople from 1043-1059 decide was the only way to safeguard the identity of the Byzantine church?

A

to break ties with Rome completely and eliminate papal influence at Constantinople