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1

four types of evidence that indicate africa is mother continent

fossil, genetic, linguistic, archaeologicial

2

humans have different ethnicities
distinguished from one another by ___ (3)

language,
culture, and nationality

3

Baobab

African trees from the genus Adansonia; major
symbol of the West African Sahel

4

__
affects African climates more than any other factor

rainfall (or its absence)

5

describe climate zones in africa

wet tropical zone along equator; gets drier as you move to the north or to the south. large deserts in the interior of northern and southern africa. coastal regions that get
proportionately more rainfall than adjacent regions
in the interior

6

describe climate of east african coast

the
climate is isolated from the rest of Africa by a mountainous ridge and is most influenced by weather in the indian ocean

7

One of the most interesting features of climate
change in Africa over the millennia has been __, which over time led to __(4)

the
contraction and expansion of the Sahara Desert; innovations in
food production, new forms of irrigation, migratory
movements, and the formation of centralized states
along the Nile River and the Niger River to address
the problems of increasingly dense populations

8

pastoralists

animal herders

9

Africa is the world’s __ largest continent
(__ square miles)

2nd; 11.7 million

10

the continent of afirca is mostly a __ with over __ of coastline and __ countries

plateau; 16,000 mi; 54

11

africa contains about __ of the world's landmass. some __percent of africa is __percent and __ is forest. __ united states, __, can fit on the african continent

20 percent of world's landmass.
20 percent desert, 15 percent rainforest.
three U.S.s

12

the __ river, which begins __ of the equator and flows __ward, is __ long and is [ most ]

nile; south; northward; 4160 mi; world's longest river

13

africa is larger than (4) combined

U.S., china, europe, india

14

since africa was so large, __

control over people, rather than land, was the basis for power and wealth

15

slash n burn farming

relied more on land than labor. cleared new land with fire --instead of applying fertilizer or rotating crops -- to restore productivity on existing farms

16

low-labor farming methods enabled

even single families to be self-sufficient, so there was less pressure to form larger groups than in places where land was more limited

17

the nile flows from __ to __

central africa to mediterranean sea

18

congo-zaire river: length, length rank, location

2,718 mi. world's tenth longest. central africa to atlantic ocean

19

niger river: length, location

2,600 mi. west africa to atlantic ocean

20

zambezi river: length, location

1,800 mi. central africa to indian ocean

21

As a consequence of ___, the largest
African populations developed in the interior, and
the coast remained sparsely populated until the Europeans
arrived.

only interior sections of most african rivers were navigable for long distances. navigation to coast was impossible b/c cataracts

22

the niger river is navigable for __ mi

1,000. phildelphia --> chicago

23

although the continent is basically flat, there's

a long stretch of mountains and plateaus high in eastern africa, which was formed by the collision of 2 tectonic plates, and a few older mountain ranges in western africa that are mostly of volcanic origin

24

The name “Africa” has not always been used to
refer to the continent of Africa. The name was initially
used limitedly to refer to ___. how then did "africa" end up applying to the entire continent?

Roman North Africa
after the fall of Carthage in 146 bce. The Arab conquerors
of the seventh century referred to the same region as “Ifriqiya.” Subsequently, the name “Africa” was applied to the entire continent during and after the voyages of exploration in the 15th century by the Portuguese and other Europeans.

25

how many ethnic groups across africa

3000

26

Hausa

the largest West African Muslim ethnic group;
live across the Sahel from Ghana to Sudan

27

Yoruba

the major Nigerian ethnic group that
participated in the transatlantic slave trade; created
the Oyo kingdom in southwestern Nigeria

28

Igbo

majority ethnic group in the region that declared
independence from Nigeria as the country Biafra

29

Mande

the language group of about 30 million people
spread across thirteen West African countries

30

Akan (2 things)

one of three West African gold fields located in
the forest and savanna of present-day Ghana; the other
two are Bambuk and Bure; also a language group

31

Fula

the major ethnic group and language of West
Africa

32

only [ ethnic group ] are concentrated largely within a single african country

Igbo