(14) Infection in the immunocompromised Flashcards Preview

2. CP - Core Immunology > (14) Infection in the immunocompromised > Flashcards

Flashcards in (14) Infection in the immunocompromised Deck (74):
1

What are the categories of host defences?

- non-specific (innate)
- specific (adaptive - humoral and cellular)
- congenital or acquired

2

Give examples of innate defences

- skin
- interferons, complement, lysozyme, acute phase proteins
- mucous membranes (tears, urine flow, phagocytes)
- lungs
- normal commensal flora in gut

3

What about the skin makes it an innate defence system?

- physical barrier
- sebum
- normal flora

4

What can disrupt the sion as an innate defence system?

- IV or urinary catheters
- surgery
- burns

5

What about the lungs make them an innate defence barrier?

- goblet cells
- muco-ciliary escalator

6

Which condition can affect the lungs being an innate defence?

Cystic fibrosis

7

What can alter the normal commensal flora in the gut?

Antibiotic treatment alters flora e.g. C. difficile, candida spp.

8

Which states/conditions can cause innate immunity to be less effective?

- extremes of age
- pregnancy
- malnutrition

9

What are the classifications of immunodeficiencies?

- congenital or acquired
- acquired or secondary

10

What is the '2nd line of defence'?

The neutrophil

11

When are neutrophils important?

After initial breach of innate defences

Less NE = increasing infection

12

What two types of defects can you have in neutrophils?

- qualitative defects (eg. lose ability to kill or chemotaxis)
- quantitive defects (less present)

13

What two things may be affected in qualitative neutrophil defects?

- chemotaxis
- killing power

14

How does chemotaxis of neutrophils become defective?

- rare
- congenital
- inadequate signalling
- abnormality in receptors
- or abnormality in NE movement

15

How does killing power of neutrophils become defective?

- inherited
- chronic granulomatous disease
- NE fail to mount a respiratory burst in phagocytosis
- deficient in NADPH oxidase
- hydrogen peroxide not formed (would normally help kill bacteria)

16

Which infection are you at risk of when the killing power of neutrophils is defective?

Staph. aureus

17

What causes quantitive defects in neutrophils (neutrophil lack)?

- cancer treatment
- bone marrow malignancy
- aplastic anaemia caused by drugs

18

What does "neutropenic" mean?

Low level of neutrophils

19

Neutropenia is especially important when...?

When levels are

20

How many patients with neutropenia will develop an infection?

>50%

21

How serious is pseudomonal infection in neutropenia?

>50% of those with pseudomonal infections will die in 24 hours if not treated

22

What treatment would you give to neutropenic patients?

Broad spectrum antibiotics first eg. an aminoglycoside and an antipseudomonal penicillin

2nd line treatment eg. a carbapenem, then antifungals, remember viruses

23

When giving neutropenic patients a broad spectrum antibiotic, it is important than the spectrum includes what?

Pseudomonas

24

What does GCSF stand for?

Granulocyte stimulating factors

- used to boost immune system in neutropenic patients

25

Which bacterial infections are seen in neutropenic patients?

- gram negative bacilli (eg. E. coli)

- gram positive cocci (eg. S. aureus) - often normal flora eg. coagulase negative staph

26

Which final infections are seen in neutropenic patients?

- candida spp (normal in gut but can translocate across into blood)

- aspergillus spp. (breathed in, infection in lung)

27

How do patients get T cell deficiencies?

- congential (rare)

- acquired - drugs eg. ciclosporin after transplantation (decreases graft versus host disease and rejection), steroids

- acquired - viruses eg. HIV

28

What are the bacterial opportunistic infections seen in T cell deficiencies?

- listeria monocytogenes (food)
- mycobacteria - MTB, MAI

29

What are the viral opportunistic infection seen in T cell deficiencies?

- HSV
- CMV (pre-emptive treatment)
- VZV

30

Viral opportunistic infections are seen in which patients?

Leukaemia and transplanted patients

31

How would you manage/treat patients with viral opportunistic infections?

- serological testing
- prophylaxis
- treatment with aciclovir and ganciclovir

32

The pathogens that affect those with T cell deficiencies tend to be what?

Organisms that like to invade into the cell (intracellular)

33

What are the fungal opportunistic infections seen in T cell deficiencies?

- candida spp.
- cryptococcus spp.

34

Why are pregnant women advised not to eat pate and soft cheese?

May contain listeria monocytogenes (this is one of the bacterial opportunistic infections)

35

What type of bacteria is listeria monocytogenes?

Gram-positive bacillus

36

What are the protozoan/parasitic infections seen in T cell deficiencies?

- cryptosporidium parvum
- toxoplasma gondii
- strongyloides stercoralis

37

How is cryptosporidium parvum transmitted?

- sporozoa - oocysts shed by cattle/humans
- faecal-oral route

38

How long is recovery from cryptosporidum parvum?

Most patients recover after prolonged illness of up to 3 weeks

May take longer in T cell deficient patients, if at all

39

What treatment is given for cyptosporidium parvum?

Symptomatic treatment only (in most cases)

40

How is toxoplasma gondii transmitted?

Sporozoa

Humans infected by contact with cat faeces

Or from eg. transplanted heart with the bradyzoites present

41

How may patients with toxoplasma gondii present?

With lesion in brain and neurological signs

(but most immunocompetent patients are asymptomatic)

42

How is strongyloides stercoralis transmitted?

Nermatode

Larvae penetrate skin, migrate

43

What are the symptoms of strongyloides stercoralis?

Normal patients are asymptomatic or rash of Larva Currens

But immunocompromsied get multiplication, huge invasion of tissues, esosinophilia

May get gram negative septicaemia as larvae move

44

Who should strongyloides stercoralis be suspected in?

Suspect in patients from tropical counties or old POW patients

45

What are hypogammaglobulinaemias?

Reduction in antibody levels

46

How are hypogammaglobulinaemias caused?

- congential eg. X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

- acquired - multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocyte leukaemia, burns

47

How are hypogammaglobulinaemias treated?

Immunoglobin replacement

48

Which bacteria are normally involved in hypogammaglobulinaemias?

Encapsulated bacteria eg. S. pneumoniae in the resp. tract or eg. giardia lamblia or cytoptosporidum in the GIT

49

Give examples of encapsulated bacteria (associated with hypogammaglobulinaemias)

- streptococcus penumoniae
- neisseria meningitidis
- E. coli
- group B strep
- salmonella typhi
- hib

50

How do you get complement deficiency?

- hereditary
- rare

51

Which bacteria are a common problem in patients with complement deficiency?

- encapsulated bacteria
- need complement to help kill organisms
- the earlier the defect in the pathway, the greater the number of organisms that may infect

52

What are the two types of complement?

- classical
- alternative

53

Which bacteria is specifically important in C-5-C8 defects of the complement pathway and why?

Neisseria meningitidis

Lysis not achieved via membrane attack complex as MAC not formed

50-60% of patients will have 1 episode of disease in life

54

Why do you get frequent and serious S. pneumoniae infections in complement deficiency?

Poor quality opsonisation

55

Why is the spleen so important in immunity?

- source of complement and antibody producing B cells

- removes opsonised bacteria from blood

56

What are the causes of splenectomy?

- traumatic
- surgical
- functional eg. sickle cell anaemia

57

Which infections are important in splenectomy?

- streptococcus penumoniae
- haemophilus influenzae type B
- N. meningitidis
- malaria

58

What measures should be taken in splenectomy?

- vaccination
- prophylactic penicillin
- education (seek help if unwell)

High mortality

59

What are biologics?

Antibodies or other peptides

Aprotein-based drug derived from living cells cultured in a laboratory

60

What do biologics do?

Inhibit inflammatory cytokine signals eg. TNF, inhibiting T cell activation, or depleting B cells

61

Biologics are often used for which condition?

Rheumatoid arthritis

62

What is there a risk of when using biologics?

- tuberculosis
- herpes zoster
- legionella pneumophila
- listeria monocytogenes

63

Give examples of organ transplantation

- HCV/paracetamol OD requiring liver transplantation (solid organ transplants)

- haematological malignancy requiring sen cell transplantation

64

How is organ transplantation related to immunodeficiency?

Anti-rejection treatment suppresses cell mediated immunity to stop effects of cytotoxic and natural killer cells

65

In organ transplantation, what does the degree of immunosuppression vary on?

How closely the donor and recipient are matched

66

Give an example diary of infections in transplantation

1. the initial disease (e.g. HBV, liver transplant)
2. surgery and hospital admission (e.g ventilator acquired pneumonia, S. aureus wound infection)
3. organ receipt (eg. toxoplasmosis, CMV), patient matching
4. opportunistic infections during initial immunosuppression (initial 3/12, e.g. CMV, aspergillus)
5. later opportunistic infection (after 3/12, e.g., zoster, listeria)

67

Give 2 examples of initial opportunistic infections in an organ transplant recipient

- CMV
- aspergillus

68

Give 2 examples of later opportunistic infections (after 3/12) in organ transplant recipient

- zoster
- listeria

69

What are the general principles of management of infection in immunodeficient patients?

- treat the known infection - empirical, need specimens from likely site of infection to guide therapy
- eg. remove catheters
- reverse defect if possible/stop immunosuppression

70

How is investigation of infections carried out?

- history and examination
- urgent diagnosis and treatment
- blood cultures (occasionally bone marrow cultures)
- respiratory samples
- other samples as systems suggest eg. urine
- serology samples (eg. toxoplasma spp.) +/- PCR. Aspergillus antigen +/- PCR
- surveillance cultures
- imaging studies eg. X-ray/CT chest/MRI

71

How are respiratory samples analysed?

- induced sputa
- bronchoalveolar lavage
- lung biopsy
- microscopy (gram, ZN, fungal and silver stains)
- viral immunofluorescence
- bacterial culture including legionella, TB
- fungal culture
- viral culture +/-- PCR
- histology

72

How are infections in the immunocompromised prevented?

- hand washing/aseptic technique/protective isolation/HEPA air filtration (allografts)
- vaccines (avoid live vaccines in T-cell deficient)
- prophylactic antimicrobials (eg. penicillin, septrin, aciclovir) and passive immunoglobin
- special diet

73

Which vaccines should be avoided in T cell deficient patients?

Live vaccines

74

Give some examples of prophylactic microbials

- penicillin
- septrin
- aciclovir