Fundamentals Unit Part 7 - Red Wine Production Flashcards

1
Q

What options can a winemaker choose regarding grapes after harvest?

A
  1. Desteem or not;
  2. Sort or not;
  3. Crush or not.
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2
Q

What effect do the stems have on wine?

A
  1. Stems absorb sugar and acid and can make the wine have lower acidity and alcohol;
  2. Stems can add bitterness and astringency if unripe;
  3. Ripe stems add spice notes
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3
Q

What is cold soak? When does it take place?

A

Also known as cold maceration, it allows the skins and juice to macerate together for a period. It takes place after crushing the grapes. It extracts colour and flvour but ot tannin due to the cool temperature (2-8C)

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4
Q

What is the temperature range for red wine fermentation? How long does it last?

A

20-32C. Over 35C the yeast will not survive. It lasts 1 - 3 weeks depending on grape variety, must concentration and wine style.

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5
Q

What are the main extraction techniques usd in red wine production?

A
  1. PIGEAGE - punching down;
  2. REMONTAGE -pumping over;
  3. DELESTAGE - Rack and Return.
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6
Q

What is PIGEAGE?

A

It is the punching down into the vat of the cap (skins), which has floated to the surface, to reintegrate them with the wine.

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7
Q

When might PIGEAGE be used?

A

It is the gentlest form of extraction and is appropriate for thinner skin grapes eg Pinot Noir and Grenache, or when a lower level of extraction is required.

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8
Q

What is REMONTAGE?

A

It a process of pumping the juice from the bottom of the tank through a hose and back over the top of the cap using a spray nozzle.

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9
Q

When might REMONTAGE be used?

A

To achieve a higher level of extraction and is used on thicker skinned grapes such as Syrah, Cabernet or Merlot. It gives the winemaker greater control as they can decide how often to pump over during fermentation.

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10
Q

What is DELESTAGE?

A

The juice is drained from the vat, racked, into another tank. The skins in the original tank fall to the bottom. The fermenting juice is returned to the vat and the whole lot reintegrated

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11
Q

When might DELESTAGE be used?

A

It provides the highets level of extraction and is used by producers who wish a rapid and thorough maceration.

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12
Q

How does maceration and alcohol contibute to the structure of red wine?

A

Alcohol pulls colour and tannin from the red grapes and the longer the maceration the more intense the colour, flavour and structure of the finished wine.

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13
Q

What is free-run juice? Press juice?

A

Free-run juice (vin de goutte) is the juice that is released after grapes are macerated and fermented and is run off into a tank or barrel for ageing, before remaining skins are pressed. These release the press juice (vin de presse).

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14
Q

Why are vin de goutte and vin de presse kept separately?

A

Vin de presse produces a deeply coloured, tannic wine. The two wines are blended together later if the winemaker chooses.

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15
Q

What is malolactic conversion?

A

It is the process of adding lactic bacteria to the wine to soften acidity by converting malic acid to lactic. It is done on all red wines.

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16
Q

What happens red wine after MLC is complete?

A

It will be racked of the lees (several times) to clarify and stabilised with SO2 if required.

17
Q

How might wine be matured?

A

In oak barrels, (new or old, large or small), or large inert casks. Light wines are usually bottled and sold early the following year.

18
Q

What does blending achieve?

A

It can integrate the different wine components together during ageing. It also can add Balance, Complexity, Consistency and acieve a particular Style. (BCCS)

19
Q

What is the final stage in red wine production?

A

Stabilisation of tartrates and filtering and fining for matter, soften tannins and boost clarity.

20
Q

What is the difference between Carbonic- and Semi-carbonic maceration?

A

In Carbonic-maceration , uncrushed, whole clusters are placed in a sealed tank filled with CO2. In Semi-carbonic, the tank is unsealed andthe grapes break down and cause fermentation which releases CO2 and expels oxygen. This creates an anaerobic environment.

21
Q

What is intracellular fermentation?

A

During carbonic maceration, the grapes on the bottom are crushed by weight. The wild yeasts begin fermentation of the juice and release CO2. This creates an anaerobic environment which causes the intracellular process.

22
Q

What are the common aromas associated with carbonic macerated wines?

A

Banana, hard candy, pear, raspberry and cranberry.

23
Q

Why does longer exposure to carbonic maceration produce more deeply coloured, greater tannin and richer flavoured wines than short exposure?

A

The juice from grapes which burst during the process will have spent more time macerating on the skins. Shorter exposure wine will have more pronounced aromatics.

24
Q

Where is the carbonic maceration process mos common?

A

In Beaujolais.

25
Q

Why is semi-carbonic so called?

A

Because only a proportion of the grapes undergo the intracellular process. The free-run juice has undergone normal fermentation as the crushed juice was fermented by wild yeast.

26
Q

What happens after free-run juiceis removed?

A

Skins are pressed and press juice is fermented without skins and with yeast added.