17 Gastrointestinal Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17 Gastrointestinal Tract Deck (18):
1

What are the majro categories of esophagitis?

Infectious
Chemical
Radiation
Iatrogenic

2

What is Boerhaave syndrome?

Distal esophageal rupture with mediastinitis

3

What are causes of secondary achalasia?

Chaga's disease (Trypanasoma cruzi)
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy
malignancy
amyloidosis
sarcoidosis
polio
surgical ablation of dorsal motor nuclei

4

What is the mechanism by which the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes?

NO nad VIP relase from inhibitory neuros and inhibition of normal cholinergical signally allows LES to relax

5

What are the types of congenital anomlies that can present in the GI tract?

Atresia
Fistulae
Duplications
Hernia
Omphalocele
Gastorchisis
Ectopia

6

What abnormalities are associated with esophageal atresia?

congenital heart defects
GU malformation
neurological disease

7

What are other more common causes of stenosis?

GERDD
irradiation
scleroderma
caustic injury
congenital stenosis

8

How does omphalocele occur?

Incomplete closure of abdominal musculature and abdominal viscera herniate into ventral membranous sac

9

Which of omphalocele and gastroschisisis is more associated with other congenital defects?

Omphalocele

10

How does gastroschisis occur?

All layers of hte abdominal wall fail to form.

11

Where does the inlet patch occur?

Upper third of esophagus

12

Where is the most common sites of pancreatic ectopia?

Stomach or esophagus

13

Where else does gastric heterotopia occur

small bowel or colon or esophagus

14

What causes Meckel diverticulum

Failure of involution of the vitelline duct

15

What are some of the molecular pathways assoicated with Hirschsprung's?

RET heterozygous loss of function mutations; mutationsi n RET ligand, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, endothelin, endothelin receptor

16

What are the different types of esphageal rings?

Type A - above GE junction, squamous mucosa
Type B - at squamocolumnar junction, gastric cardia-typ mucosa

17

What are the major features of Paterson=Brown-Kelly or Plummer-Vinson syndrome?

upper esophageal webs, iron deficiency anemia, glossitis and cheilosis

18

What is the morphology of mucosal webs and how do htey different from Schatski rings?

Esophgeal webs - ledge-like, semicircumferential, eccentric lesions. Schatski rings are circumferential and thicker and include mucsoa, submucosa and can include muscularis propria