Flashcards in 17 Gastrointestinal Tract Deck (18):
What are the majro categories of esophagitis?
What is Boerhaave syndrome?
Distal esophageal rupture with mediastinitis
What are causes of secondary achalasia?
Chaga's disease (Trypanasoma cruzi)
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy
surgical ablation of dorsal motor nuclei
What is the mechanism by which the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes?
NO nad VIP relase from inhibitory neuros and inhibition of normal cholinergical signally allows LES to relax
What are the types of congenital anomlies that can present in the GI tract?
What abnormalities are associated with esophageal atresia?
congenital heart defects
What are other more common causes of stenosis?
How does omphalocele occur?
Incomplete closure of abdominal musculature and abdominal viscera herniate into ventral membranous sac
Which of omphalocele and gastroschisisis is more associated with other congenital defects?
How does gastroschisis occur?
All layers of hte abdominal wall fail to form.
Where does the inlet patch occur?
Upper third of esophagus
Where is the most common sites of pancreatic ectopia?
Stomach or esophagus
Where else does gastric heterotopia occur
small bowel or colon or esophagus
What causes Meckel diverticulum
Failure of involution of the vitelline duct
What are some of the molecular pathways assoicated with Hirschsprung's?
RET heterozygous loss of function mutations; mutationsi n RET ligand, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, endothelin, endothelin receptor
What are the different types of esphageal rings?
Type A - above GE junction, squamous mucosa
Type B - at squamocolumnar junction, gastric cardia-typ mucosa
What are the major features of Paterson=Brown-Kelly or Plummer-Vinson syndrome?
upper esophageal webs, iron deficiency anemia, glossitis and cheilosis