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Flashcards in Proteins Deck (23)
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0
Q

Explains why protein is important for immune function.

A

The formation of antibodies requires protein.

1
Q

Protein makes up about 20 percent of our body weight and is a primary component of … (6).

A

Muscles, hair, skin, nails, eyes, internal organs (esp. the hear muscle and brain)

2
Q

Hemoglobin is a protein.

True or False?

A

True

3
Q

Biochemical deficiency can occur when there is a lack of XXX, the protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in the body.

A

Enzymes

4
Q

Explain the use if the term conditionally essential.

A

All amino acids are technically conditionally essential. Formerly the categorization was to indicate that C.E. Acids become essential when the body is lacking the building blocks to produce (sufficient) of one particular amino acid.

5
Q

List 5 conditionally essential amino acids.

A

Arginine, cysteine, glycine, histidine, and proline.

6
Q

Explain how we may become deficient in some if the non-essential amino acids.

A

When the body is lacking sources to produce the nonessential amino acid. It takes one or more compounds to produce the non-essential amino acids, the body is lacking any of these sources, it won’t be able to produce the nonessential amino acid.

7
Q

When we are supplementing the diet with individual amino acids, what is the best way to avoid imbalance?

A

To supplement with all aminos.

8
Q

Describe the functions if the following essential amino acids and list food sources.
Leucine, Lysine, Tryptophan

A

Leucine: poultry, red meat, dairy, wheat germ, oats. Essential for (muscle) growth, used as fuel.

Lysine: high in fish, meats, dairy, wheat germ, legumes, fruits & veg.
Helps to absorb calcium, promptes bone growth, formation of collagen, immune stimulating.

Tryptophan: animal foods, eggs, dairy, nuts, seeds; low in corn, cereal grains, legumes. It’s a compound of building serotonin (mood and sleep).

9
Q

Describe the functions of the following conditionally essential amino acids and list the possible supplementary uses.
Arginine, Cysteine, Glycine

A

Arginine: aids in metabolism if ammonia (generated from protein breakdown), transports nitrogen in muscle metabolism, influences hormone functions. Supplement during periods of stress, during growth (children), pregnant women.

Cysteine: is required to produce glutathione, which is important for a lot of essential functions.

Glycine: helps improving glycogen storage a, thereby improves energy. Brain metabolism; acts as neurotransmitter. Uses: healing wounds, treatment if manic psychological states, problems with muscle spasticity.

10
Q

Can we get adequate protein without meat?

A

Yes, by combining plant-based proteins.

11
Q

Complete protein combinations of veg sources. Idea: grains + beans or seeds

A
Millet + Aduki beans
Brown rice + sunflower seeds
Soy beans + rice, sesame, corn, what or rye
Peanuts + grain or coconut
Grain + legumes or leafy greens
Beans + corn or rice
Peas + wheat
12
Q

What happens if an amino acid is deficient in our diet? Under this circumstance, the body will XXX to make proteins. Most amino acids necessary to make the proteins will be available from XX XX supplies. But the deficient amino acid XX XX.

A

Continue
Existing cellular
Will not

13
Q

Explain how the body will obtain the deficient amino acid.

A

The body will get it from breaking down its own muscle tissue/protein storage to obtain it.

14
Q

Briefly describe the processes of protein digestion; include the enzymes involved.

A

(Hydrochloride acid, pepsin, and) Protease start splitting the bonds in your stomach. In the duodenum the pancreatic enzyme trypsin converts them into shorter-chain polypeptides. Further on in the small intestine amino peptidases and dipeptidases turn them all into short-chain aminos, which will be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported via portal mean to the liver.

15
Q

60 to 70% of amino acids available in the body come from the diet; true or false?

A

False, from body proteins.

16
Q

Most of the amino acids are used to form body proteins, give examples of such body proteins.

A

Enzymes, hormones, antibodies, tissue proteins like muscle, and other tissue substances such as melanin, epinephrine, creatine, niacin, choline, ..

17
Q

List and describe the five functions of protein.

A
  1. Growth and maintenance - especially important during pregnancy and for growing children. Hair, nails, cells, etc. constantly need aminos for replacement.
  2. Energy – protein supplies as much calories as carbs [4 kcal per gram]. Body burns carbs, then fats, and if no sufficient energy is available: protein. First it breaks down fat tissue, then muscles.
  3. Building important substances – like Hemoglobin, hormones [insulin, thyroid], antibodies [antigens].
  4. Fluid and salt balance – proteins can move in and out of cells, as can water. Large protein molecules attract water. Proteins also push sodium out of the cells and potassium in.
  5. Asset/Alkaline balance – proteins act as buffers, help with elimination of excess hydrogen ions [parts of acids]. Body pH regulates normal to 7.4
18
Q

What is the average protein requirements per day?

A

WHO: 0.45 g of protein per kilogram of body weight

US government: 0.8 g per kilogram

19
Q

In a healthy adult, nitrogen equilibrium or zero balance, is the ideal.

When is a positive nitrogen balance needed? Explain your answer.

A

During times of illness, healing, children during growth, and during pregnancy – to keep a positive balance in order to an evil protein formation within the body.

20
Q

List some of the chronic degenerative diseases associated with the over-consumption of protein from sources such as meat and dairy foods.

A

Arthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

21
Q

The nitrogen fragment of the amino acid molecule and the remains of other protein substances make up urea and uric acid. When the kidneys are unable to excrete all of the uric acid through the urine, it may accumulate in the tissues and joints and crystallize, producing protein toxicity and giving rise to the symptoms of gout.

A

No answer.

22
Q

List some of the symptoms that may appear due to protein deficiency.

A

Edema, nausea or dizziness, poor concentration, general and overall weakness, anemia, cataracts, catch colds lose and infections easily, muscle wasting, premature aging, low hormone levels, hair dull, loose and falling out.