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Flashcards in Lipids Deck (40)
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0
Q

Name the 4 fat-soluble vitamins.

A

Vitamins A, D, E, & K are fat soluble.

1
Q

True or false?

Fats contain more calories than any other component of food.

A

True. Fat packs more than twice the amount of calories as protein or carbohydrates.

2
Q

True or false?

Fats are an essential component of the cell membrane, and internal fatty tissues protect the vital organs from trauma and temperature change by providing padding and insulation.

A

True, in fact, fat even helps to regulate body temperature.

3
Q

When we look at fat and energy storage it is quantity that is most important.

When we look at fat as a cell membrane component or as a transport mechanism, fat quality is most important.

No answer.

A

No answer.

4
Q

True or false?

Lipids are only found in meats and dairy foods.

A

False. Lipids are found primarily in meets, dairy foods, nuts, and seeds.

Vegetable sources of dietary fat are: soybeans, olives, peanuts, and avocados.

5
Q

List some problems associated with excessive intake of dietary fat.

A

Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer.

6
Q

List three rolls of fat in our body.

A

Transport other nutrients [vitamins A, D, E, K]

Essential component of cell membrane

Internal fatty tissue protects vital organs from trauma and temperature change

7
Q

When we look at fat as a cell membrane component, or a transport mechanism, fat quantity becomes much less important than fat quality.

A

False. For energy storage quantities of fat are important. For cell the membrane component or transport mechanisms quality of fat is important.

8
Q

“To remain healthy, our bodies need fatty acids not only of all xxx, but also of both ex ex [XX and XX]”

A

Three links

Types

Saturated and unsaturated

9
Q

Explain the process of hydrogenation, it’s use for the industry, and it’s real and potential dangers to our health.

A

Hydrogenation is a process that extends shelf-life. During this process, a canister of hydrogen gas is position below of vat oil, and under controlled circumstances, the hydrogen gas is allowed to bubble up into the oil. This way, some of the oil can be convinced to soak up more hydrogen and unsaturated fatty acids can be transformed into saturated ones. This transformation produces a semi-solid fat that is less likely to go rancid. This process converts some of the unsaturated fatty acids into a new form called trans fats that increases blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, as well as the risk of atherosclerosis [hardening of the arteries] and possibility of delay in infant development.

10
Q

True or false?

All saturated fat is clearly not created equal; for example, when saturated fat is short-chain, it offers important health benefits that are lacking in the long-chain version.

A

True

11
Q

Explain why butter is a better choice than margarine.

A

Butyric acid [SCFA] reduces cancer risks. Margarine contains hydrogenated oils and trans fats and lack SCFA.

12
Q

“There are two essential fatty acids [EFAs] that we much consume in food: Linoleic acid, and omega 6 fatty acid; and alpha-linoleic asset, and omega 3.”

A

No answer, correct statement.

13
Q

True or false?

Triglycerides comprise about 50% of the lipids in food and in our bodies.

A

False; it’s 95%

14
Q

Fact: fatty acids. Simple chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the chain. Each carbon atom has the capacity to attach 4 other atoms (adjacent carbons plus 2 hydrogen atoms.] When all potential hydrogen spaces are filled, then the chain is saturated. When the spaces are left vacant, the fat is left unsaturated.

A

No answer.

15
Q

List a few symptoms of fatty acid deficiency

A
Rough, dry, flaky or scaly skin
dry brittle hair
wounds heal poorly
get infections easily
fatigue, PMS
16
Q

Fact: certain people who are prone to problems with skin, hair, allergies, hormone regulation, or autoimmune diseases have trouble manufacturing adequate amounts of Prostaglandin intermediaries and benefit from dietary supplementation of GLA in the form of Evening Primrose or Borage oil or EPA/DHA, organic flax seed oil.

A

No answer.

17
Q

Explain the similarities between phospholipids and triglycerides

A

Both contain a glycerol “backbone” with three attached molecules.

18
Q

Explain the importance of phospholipids.

A

Phospholipids are important when it comes to the fatty acid composition of cell membranes.

19
Q

What is the most common (and best studied) phospholipid? List food sources.

A

Lecitin [makes fat interact with proteins and starches]. It is found as a food additive in cake, ice cream, breads, cake mixes, margarine, shortening, and chocolate.

20
Q

True or false:

Sphingomyelin is a phospholipid that is part of the tissue covering brain and nerve cells.

A

False, it helps to regulate nerve functions.

21
Q

Fact: elevated cholesterol levels occur in the blood when the blood lacks the normal balance of antioxidants.

A

Excess sugar and fats, especially processed and non-essential fatty acids in the diet result in higher cholesterol levels.

22
Q

Explain why the cholesterol found in foods is not the villain contributing to cardiovascular disease.

A

It is the oxidized cholesterol in the blood that causes the trouble, and the level of this is more a function of total fat intake and genetically determined aspects of cholesterol metabolism than the amount of cholesterol in our food.

23
Q

Explain how researchers have changed their thinking about HDL and LDL.

A

LDL has the ability to calm the immune system and reduce inflammation.

LDL is still a “bad guy”, but lesser than before. It is more important to increase fiber and plant phytonutrients than it is to drop total cholesterol. Reducing inflammation and oxidation will protect the body from overactive immune system responses.

24
Q

Describe what measures can be taken to increase our HDL levels.

A

Getting more exercise, increasing dietary fiber as well as plant foods, especially veggies.

25
Q

Describe the digestion process of fats.

A

Chewing will help separate the fats. Hydrochloric acid and enzymes “free” the lipids from the food [in stomach]. In the small intestine, bile is secreted from the gallbladder and breaks down the fat globules into smaller groups of molecules [= a emulsifying].
This way pancreatic lipase and other enzymes can work on individual triglycerides and turn them into di- and monoglycerides, which ultimately get split into their components: fatty acids and glycerol.

26
Q

What organ is the principal site for fat metabolism?

A

The liver, it alters fatty acids for absorption.

27
Q

List the function lipids perform (4)

A

A ready energy source

Act as protection for organs from trauma and cold

Integral part of cell membranes

For vitamin A, D, E, and K absorption

28
Q

What points from the eating plan of the American heart Association do you disagree?

A

Fat-free dairy products – two processed, lacking natural enzymes.

Consuming margarine or canola oil.

29
Q

List some recommendations for reducing dietary fat intake.

A

Upping the intake of plant foods including vegetables; leafy greens, Rick vegetables, and whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes.
Broiling foods [or baking, steaming] instead of frying.
Replacing animal proteins with vegetable source protein.

30
Q

What are the two aspects of diet that must be considered when addressing dietary fat and disease.

A

The total amount of fat intake and the types of fats consumed

31
Q

What is the number one disease related to increased fat intake?

A

Atherosclerosis.

32
Q

Explain how atherosclerosis contributes to a variety of other diseases.

A

High blood pressure [hypertension) enlargement of the heart, general heart disease, congestive heart failure. The clogging of arteries with plaque decreases the delivery of life-supporting blood to the tissues.

33
Q

Name two major types of cancer associated with excessive dietary fat intake.

A

Colon and rectum cancer and breast cancer

34
Q

List the top three factors that increase the risk of cancer

A

High-fat, low-fiber diets, which lead to high bile levels in the colon.
As well as high animal-protein diets.

35
Q

What is the effect of fat on the colon?

A

High amounts of bile are required to break down the fats. These raised levels of bile alter the “good” bacteria in your gut, which now can’t protect the gut lining from carcinogens. This altered flora interacts with bile to create compounds that may cause cancer.

36
Q

How is a high-fat diet related to breast cancer in women?

A

Saturated fats generate more cholesterol and higher estrogen levels in women. Higher estrogen levels are related to a higher chance of developing breast cancer. Trans-fatty acids are even worse for that matter.

37
Q

Explain why increasing fiber content, in a high-fat diet, will provide some protection against carcinogens in the colon.

A

Fiber will increase bowel mobility and bulk up the stool, thereby diluting the carcinogenic substances. Also, fiber will improve bacterial detox.

38
Q

Explain how vitamin C may prevent cancer.

A

Vitamin C it will interfere with the production of nitrosamines, a carcinogen formed from dietary nitrites and preserved food.

39
Q

List three suggestions for reducing cardiovascular disease.

A
  1. reduce the amount of total dietary fats to 20% or 30% of total calories consumed, specifically long-chain saturated fats and hydrogenated oils
  2. eat more cold-water fish
  3. keep blood pressure under control, exercise, and don’t smoke