Ch. 8 - Language and Thought Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Ch. 8 - Language and Thought > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 8 - Language and Thought Deck (34)
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1
Q

Acquisition

A

The formation of a new conditioned response tendency.

2
Q

Algorithm

A

A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem.

3
Q

Availability heuristic

A

Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.

4
Q

Bilingualism

A

The acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabularies, and grammatical rules.

5
Q

Cognition

A

The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.

6
Q

Confirmation bias

A

The tendency to seek information that supports one’s decisions and beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information.

7
Q

Conjunction fallacy

A

An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.

8
Q

Decision making

A

The process of evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.

9
Q

Fast mapping

A

The process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word.

10
Q

Framing

A

How issues are posed or how choices are structured.

11
Q

Functional fixedness

A

The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.

12
Q

Gambler’s fallacy

A

The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn’t occurred recently.

13
Q

Heuristic

A

A strategy, guiding principle, or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions.

14
Q

Incubation effect

A

A phenomenon that occurs when new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problem after a period of not consciously thinking about the problem.

15
Q

Insight

A

In problem solving, the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error.

16
Q

Language

A

A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.

17
Q

Language acquisition device (LAD)

A

An innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language.

18
Q

Linguistic relativity

A

The theory that one’s language determines the nature of one’s thought.

19
Q

Mental set

A

Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past.

20
Q

Metalinguistic awareness

A

The ability to reflect on the use of language.

21
Q

Morphemes

A

The smallest units of meaning in a language.

22
Q

Overextensions

A

Using a word incorrectly to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to.

23
Q

Overregularization

A

In children, incorrect generalization of grammatical rules to irregular cases where they do not apply.

24
Q

Phonemes

A

The smallest units of sound in a spoken language.

25
Q

Problem solving

A

Active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily available.

26
Q

Problem space

A

The set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver.

27
Q

Representativeness heuristic

A

Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.

28
Q

Risky decision making

A

Making choices under conditions of uncertainty.

29
Q

Semantics

A

The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations.

30
Q

Syntax

A

A system of rules that specify how words can be combined into phrases and sentences.

31
Q

Telegraphic speech

A

Speech that consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted.

32
Q

Theory of bounded rationality

A

Simon’s assertion that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in irrational decisions that are less than optimal.

33
Q

Trial and error

A

Trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works.

34
Q

Underextensions

A

Errors that occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to.