Flashcards in 19.3 Deck (19):
The autonomic nervous system includes the ___ and ___ NS.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
In the SNS, ___ is the NT that activates ___.
In the PNS, ___ is the NT that activates ___.
In the somatic NS, ___ is the NT that activates ___.
___ is the stimulus for release of neurotransmitters from synaptic terminals.
Inactivation of noradrenaline is by ___, and inactivation of acetylcholine is by ___.
Uptake to inactivate NAd.
Metabolism to inactive ACh.
___ is the precursor to NAd
Metabolism is secondary to ___ as an inactivating mechanism.
The enzymes ___ and ___ are involved in the metabolism of NAd
MAO and COMT
90-95% of NAd uptake is by the high affinity transporter on the ___-___ ___, and some of NAd uptake is by the low affinity transporter on the ___-___ ___.
High affinity transporter on pre-junctional neuron.
Low affinity transporter on post-junctional neuron.
Cocaine inhibits uptake of ___ by inhibiting the ___ ___ ___ on the ___-junctional neuron.
NAd from synaptic cleft.
High affinity transporter on the pre-junctional neuron.
Cocaine inhibits NAd ___, and amphetamine is a ___ - it displaces NAd from ___ ___.
Cocaine inhibits uptake.
Amphetamine is a sympathomimetic - displaces NAd from synaptic vesicles.
For central effects, drugs must cross the ___.
What effects can cocaine cause, due to inhibition of NAd uptake from the synapse?
Central AND peripheral effects!
Psychological and physical dependence (blocks dopamine and serotonin uptake too!!!) - psychotic symptoms, depression, anxiety, fatigue.
Hypetension, tachycardia, coronary vasospasm, dysrhythmia, convulsions.
What functions is dopamine involved in?
Movement (e.g. Parkinson's disease).
Behaviour (e.g. schizophrenia).
Dependence (effects in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area).
Pituitary function - prolactin secretion!
Cocaine blocks the uptake of NAd, AND ___ AND ___, and blocks ___ channels
NAd, AND dopamine and serotonin!
Dopamine -> dependence.
Blocks Na+ channels.
NT receptors in the CNS can be ___-___ ___ ___ or ___ ___ ___ ___
Ligand-gated ion channels.
G protein coupled receptors.
Excitatory ligand-gated ion channels use ___ influx driven ___polarisation for excitation.
Na+ influx for depolarisation e.g. nicotininc receptors at skeletal NMJ.