Flashcards in 1A - biological molecules Deck (21):
what are polymers?
large, complex molecules composed of long chains of monomers joined together.
what are monomers?
small, basic molecular units that form a polymer.
what are some examples of monomers?
monosaccharides, amino acids and nucleotides.
how are polymers formed?
condensation reactions between two or more monomers.
what is a condensation reaction?
a reaction that forms a chemical bond between monomers, releasing a molecule of water.
how can you break down polymers?
what is a hydrolysis reaction?
a reaction that breaks down the chemical bond between monomers using a water molecule.
what are monosaccharides?
monomers of carbohydrates.
give three examples of monosaccharides.
glucose, fructose and galactose.
what type of sugar is glucose?
hexose sugar (a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms in each molecule).
what are the two types of glucose?
alpha and beta.
what are isomers?
molecules with the same molecular formula but with the atoms connected in a different way.
what is a disaccharide?
where two monosaccharides join together.
what bond is formed between two monosaccharides?
a glycosidic bond.
give three examples of disaccharides.
maltose, lactose and sucrose.
what test is used for finding reducing and non-sugars?
the benedicts test.
how do you use the benedicts test for finding reducing sugars?
heat the sample with benedicts reagent. if the sample forms a green, yellow, orange or brick red precipitate then reducing sugar is present.
what colour is benedicts reagent?
how do you use the benedicts test to find non-reducing sugars?
if there’s no reducing sugar present, get a new sample and add dilute hydrochloride acid and then add sodium hydrogen carbonate to neutralise the solution. if the sample remains blue, no non-reducing sugar is present.
what is a polysaccharide?
two or more monosaccharides joined together.