2-1-16-Histology Of Pituitary, Hypothalamus, & Pineal (Cole) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2-1-16-Histology Of Pituitary, Hypothalamus, & Pineal (Cole) Deck (79):
1

What are the 2 nuclei of the hypothalamus?

Supraoptic

Paraventricular

2

This hypothalamic nucleus primarily produces ADH

Supraoptic

3

This hypothalamic nucleus primarily produces oxytocin:

Paraventricular

4

The hypothalamus releases ____ which stimulates release of prolactin and thyrotropin (AKA Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)

Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone (TRH)

5

The hypothalamus releases ___ which stimulates release of FSH and LH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

6

The hypothalamus releases ___ which stimulates release of ACTH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

7

The hypothalamus releases ___ which stimulates release of GH

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

8

The hypothalamus releases ____ which inhibits release of GH and TSH

Somatostatin

9

The hypothalamus releases ___ which inhibits release of Prolactin

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) AKA Dopamine

10

The anterior pituitary is stimulated by TRH from the hypothalamus to release ___ which stimulates thyroid production of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones

Prolactin and Thyrotropin (AKA TSH)

11

The anterior pituitary is stimulated by GnRH from the hypothalamus to release ___ which stimulates follicular development (ovaries) and spermatogenesis (testes). ___ is also released from the anterior pituitary in response to GnRH which stimulates ovulation, estrogen production (ovaries) & testosterone production (testes)

FSH and LH

12

The anterior pituitary is stimulated by CRH from the hypothalamus to released ___ which stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol

ACTH

13

Where is the pituitary gland located?

In the SELLA TURCICA within the SPHENOID BONE of the skull. It is posterior to the OPTIC CHIASM

14

____ is dura mater that extends over and covers the pituitary within the sella turcica

Sellar diaphragm

15

___ is a pituitary tumor > 1 cm diameter (macroadenoma) present with symptoms due to mass effect.

Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma

16

Compression of the optic chiasm in nonfunctional pituitary adenoma leads to ___

Bitemporal hemianopsia (issues with peripheral vision)

17

Compression of the pituitary from nonfunctional pituitary adenoma can lead to ____

Hypopituitarism

18

In pituitary embryogenesis, ___ becomes anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and ___ becomes posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

Oral ectoderm

Neuroectoderm

19

The regressing stalk of Rathke's pouch can leave residual tissue, which may become a tumor called a _____

Craniopharyngioma

20

___ is a benign childhood brain tumor that is usually suprasellar. It is similar to pituitary adenomas, can compress the optic chiasm and cause bitemporal hemianopsia.

Craniopharyngioma

21

A craniopharyngioma is derived from remnant's of ___; often contains cystic spaces and calcifications

Rathke's pouch

22

List the components of the adenohypophysis

Pars distalis (anteior portion)

Pars tuberalis (surrounds infundibular stalk)

Pars intermedia (division between anterior and posterior)

23

List the components of the neurohypophysis

Pars nervosa

Infundibular stalk

24

___ is the largest portion of the pituitary gland (75%) and is made up of Glandular epithelial cells, Fenestrated capillaries (sinusoids), and some CT stroma

Pars distalis (pars anterior)

25

List the Adenohypophysis hormones:

FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
GH

FLAT PiG

26

___ cells of the pars distalis (pars anterior) have granules in the cells that readily take up H&E stain. These cells are divided into acidpohils and basophils

Chromophils (CHroma=color + philein=to love)

27

___ cells of the pars distalis (pars anterior) do not take up stain and lack affinity. The nuclei are the only visible component and do NOT produce hormones (unknown function)

Chromophobes

28

____ stain with basic dye (purple/blue and darker with H&E)

____ stain with acidic dye (Pink with H&E)

Basophils

Acidpohils

29

Gonadotrophs synthesize ____

Corticotrophs synthesize ____

Thyrotrophs synthesize ____

Gonadotropins (FSH, LH)

Adenocorticotropin (ACTH)

Thyrotropin (TSH)

30

Mammotrophs synthesize ____

Somatotrophs synthesize ____

Prolactin

GH

31

Gonaotrophs, corticotrophs, and thyrotrophs stain with ____

Mammotrophs and somatotrophs stain with ___

Basic dye

Acidic dye

32

___ stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production in females; it stimulates sertoli cells to produce sperm in males

FSH

33

FSH can be feedback inhibited by ___

Inhibin and by estrogen in females

34

___ triggers ovulation and stimulates ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone in females; it promotes Leydig cell production of testosterone in males

LH

35

LH is feedback inhibited by ___

Estrogen & progesterone in females and testosterone in males

36

___ stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids and androgens

ACTH

37

ACTH is feedback inhibited by ___

Glucocorticoids (i.e., cortisol)

38

___ stimulates thyroid gland to release T3 and T4 --> Control of metabolism

TSH

39

TSH is feedback inhibited by ___

Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)

40

___ stimulates milk production and promotes lactation

Prolactin

41

Prolactin inhibits GnRH and thus, ___ and ___

FSH

LH

42

Prolactin is feedback inhibited by ___

PIH --> dopamine

43

___ indirectly stimulates overall growth of bone and soft tissue via production of Insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF-1) aka Somatomedin

GH

44

GH is feedback inhibited by:

-Somatostatin
-Feedback inhibition by GH and IGF-1
-Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, emotional deprivation

45

___ is between pars distalis and pars nervosa and has an unknown function. It frequently has a cleft (remnant of Rathke's) and consists of small basophils and colloid-filled follicles lined by pale cuboidal cells

Pars intermedia

46

___ suspends the pituitary gland from the hypothalamus

Infundibulum

47

___ surrounds the infundibular stalks (part of anterior pituitary) and is a component of the infundibulum

Pars tuberalis

48

___ is the neural portion of the infundibulum and is part of the posterior pituitary

Infundibular stalk

49

___ is a thin neural stalk connecting the median eminence of the hypothalamus to the pars nervosa

Infundibular stalk

50

What are the 2 parts of the infundibular stalk?

Median eminence and Infundibular process

51

What are the neurohypophysis hormones?

ADH and Oxytocin

52

___ of the pars nervosa are glial-like cells and appear to support numerous unmyelinated nerve fibers traveling from the hypothalamus

Pituicytes

53

___ of the pars nervosa are expanded axon terminals filled with the stored neurohypophysis hormones (ADH and oxytocin)

Herring bodies

54

____ is primarily produced by the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus and regulates serum osmolarity (via V2-receptors in DCT and CD --> causes water retention and concentrates urine. It is also a potent vasoconstrictor at high doses (via V1-receptors)

ADH

55

ADH release is regulated by ___

Hypothalamic osmoreceptors and baroreceptors

56

___ is primarily produced by paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and functions to contract smooth muscle, i.e., uterine contractions during labor & after to contract uterus back down to normal size as well as facilitate milk ejection via breast myoepithelial cells

Oxytocin --> "Feel good hormone"

57

Pituitary blood supply is via ___ artery

Internal carotid

58

___ arteries are off of the internal carotid artery and supply median eminence and infundibulum

___ arteries are off of the internal carotid arterty and supply the pars nervosa

Superior hypophyseal

Inferior hypophyseal

59

Superior hypophyseal arteries give rise to the ___ which collects hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones

Primary capillary plexus

60

The primary capillary plexus is drained by ___ veins and delivers blood into the secondary capillary plexus (in pars distalis). These collect anterior pituitary secretions and sends them into circulation via fenestrated capillaries

Hypophyseal portal

61

Inferior hypophyseal arteries give rise to the ___ which supplies and collects hormones from posterior pituitary (ADH and oxytocin) and sends them into circulation via their own hypophyseal veins

3rd capillary plexus

62

Outline the venous drainage of the anterior pituitary gland secreting hormones:

Anterior pituitary gland secretes hormones --> diffuse into capillaries --> venous sinuses (petrosal and cavernous)

63

Outline the venous drainage of the posterior pituitary secreting hormones:

Posterior pituitary gland secretes hormones --> diffuse into capillaries --> hypophyseal veins --> venous sinuses (petrosal and cavernous)

64

The pineal glands develops from a posterior outpocketing of the roof of the ____

Diencephalon in midline of 3rd ventricle

65

___ main functions are to manufacture melatonin and serotonin

Pineal gland

66

The pineal gland does not have a direct nerve connection to the brain. Rather, it is regulated postganglionic sympathetics from ___

Superior cervical ganglion

67

The pineal gland contains a capsule derive from ___ and is made up of pinealocytes, neuroglial cells, calcified granular material (brain sand), and contains NO NEURONS

Pia mater

68

___ are neuron-like, have large, pale, irregular nuclei, are regulated by B-adrenergic receptors, and their main function is production of melatonin and serotonin

Pinealocytes

69

___ are interstitial cells, have smaller and dense nuclei, and support pinealocytes

Neuroglial cells

70

Melatonin is synthesized from this AA:

Tryptophan

71

Melatonin acts to delay sexual development until puberty by inhibiting __ and __ secretion

GnRH

GH

72

When puberty arrives, melatonin production will ___

Decrease

73

Pineal tumors are linked to ___

Precocious puberty (Decreases melatonin --> early sexual maturity)

74

Melatonin can be used for treatment of:

Jet lag --> disrupted circadian rhythm

Seasonal affective disorder --> help regulate emotional responses due to decreased daylight during winter

Insomnia

75

Where is the location of the hypothalamus?

Floor of the DIENCEPHALON

Forms part of the wall of the 3rd ventricle

76

___ is characterized by a delayed/absent puberty and anosmia (no sense of smell), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and prevents migration of GnRH neurons to arcuate nucleus and olfactory neurons to olfactory bulb

Kallman syndrome

77

___ is due to loss of feedback control of GH secretion or to GH-secreting tumor in the pituitary (adenoma)

Pituitary gigantism

78

___ is due to an excessive adult production of GH. It is characterized by growth of the face (prognathism), hands and feet, and increase in viscera and is due to loss of feedback control of GH secretion or to GH-secreting tumor in the pituitary.

Acromegaly

79

___ is growth retardation resulting in abnormally short adult stature. It is caused by a variety of hereditary and metabolic disorders.

Pituitary dwarfism--> caused by insufficient GH

Problem can be in hypothalamus or pituitary