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Outline the two major conclusions Charles Darwin made in his book "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection"

1. Species were not created in their present form, but have evolved from a natural ancestor
2. Natural selection is the mechanism for evolution


Define: Evolutionary adaptations

Inherited characteristics when enhance an organism's ability to survive to maturity, find a mate, produce fertile offspring in an environment


Recite the explanation of evolution by means of natural selection

The theory of evolution by means of natural selection relies on natural variation in a species and some of those organisms having favourable traits that better suit them to their environment, to that they are more likely to survive to maturity, find a mate, successfully reproduce to pass on those favourable traits to their fertile offspring, over thousands of generations. It thus depends in variation, inheritability and over-reproduction


Explain the impact of changes in the physical conditions of the environment on an organism, using examples

Peppered moth: some moths were naturally light coloured, whilst others were darker. As the Industrial Revolution occurred, the tree trunks became darker and thus natural selection favoured the darker coloured moths as they were better able to camouflage and avoid predators.


Explain the impact of changes in the chemical environment on an organism, using examples

Mosquitoes: to decrease the spread of malaria, mosquitoes were killed using DDT. However, due to natural variation, some mosquitoes were naturally resistant to DDT and were thus able to survive to maturity, find a mate, and produce fertile offspring to pass on favourable trait.


Explain the impact of competition on organisms

Introduced species create competition for organisms. The introduction of dingoes, feral cats and foxes disturbed the food chain as they did not have a natural apex predator. Organisms that were thus able to change their diet were favoured by natural selection


Identify the three major sections of evidence that Darwin used to support his theory of evolution

Fossil Records, behaviour of living animals and geographical distribution of similar organisms. Due to the technology in his period, genetic studies were not available


Describe the nature of fossil evidence in relation to supporting the theory of evolution and its limitations

When living organisms are compared with fossils from the record, a history of change can be observed, which is used to suggest a common ancestral relationship. Transitional forms are considered the 'missing link' between species. The Archaeopteryx is a small dinosaur which had both reptilian features and bird features.
Limitations: fossil record is incomplete and favours organisms that are easily fossilised, unequal representation of organisms, limitations of radiocarbon dating.


Describe the nature of comparative embryology in relation to supporting the theory of evolution

The study of similarities between embryos of different vertebrates. As these vertebrates begin their development with 'gill slits', they are used to suggest a common aquatic ancestor. As organisms have evolved to better suit their environment, the gill slits developed into other organs


Describe the nature of comparative anatomy in relation to supporting the theory of evolution

Compares similar structures (homologous structures) in vertebrate organisms. These homologous structures are used as evidence to suggest a common ancestral relationship. A common structure studied is the pentadactyl limb (forearm). The structure differences are a result of the specific functioning of the organism.


Describe the nature of biogeography in relation to supporting the theory of evolution

Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of organisms. Due to the movement of tectonic plates, organisms can become isolated in a specific region. As they evolve to better suit their environment over thousands of generations, they become unable to successfully reproduce with there initial species (speciation). Darwin noticed the unique flora and fauna on each continent and concluded that they must have a common ancestral relationship. Eg: ratite birds


Describe the nature of biochemistry in relation to supporting the theory of evolution

A comparison of organisms at a molecular level. Amino-acid sequencing is used to compare the structure and composition of amino acids in different organisms. 'Cytochrome-C' is present in all respiring organisms. Similarities indicate that the organisms have evolved from a common ancestor.


Define: Divergent evolution and provide examples

Divergent evolution refers to system of evolution in which organisms becoming different in their form to common ancestors, as a result of speciation. Adaptive radiation is a mechanism which contributes to divergent evolution as organisms migrate ('radiate') and thus evolve to better suit their environment. Eg: Darwin's finches


Define: Convergent evolution

Organisms from distantly related ancestors come to resemble each other doe to similar environmental pressures


Describe an experiment conducted to model natural selection

Different coloured cards resembling variation in a species were used. A spinner was used to determine the organisms that became prey. Whilst this successfully modelled evolution by means of natural selection, it was oversimplified and so not all selective pressures were included. Assumptions were made regarding mating partners, population side and offspring


Describe a case study which explores who environmental changes lead to changes in a species

The environmental mosquitoes lived in changes due to the presence of DDT. Due to natural variation, some organisms were naturally resistant to DDT. As a result, they were more likely to survive to maturity, find a mate, successfully reproduce and pass on their favourable traits to fertile offspring. This meant that over thousands of generations. Most mosquitoes were naturally resistant to DDT.


Explain how advances in biochemical technology has changed scientific understandings of evolutionary relationships

Initially, it was believed that humans existed in their own classification (Homindae family) and that chimpanzees were in a seperate family (Pongidae family). However, due to the study of amino-acid sequencing (cytochrome-C), it was discovered that humans and chimps have the same sequencing and are thus more closely related. This mean that the chimpanzees are now also classified under the phylogenetic branch, Homindae


Outline the historical development of theories of evolution

1700s: natural theology
Curvier: nomenclature naming system. Implied no evolutionary relationships and hypothesised catastrophism
Hutton: hypothesised gradualism
Lyell: uniformitarianism
Lamarck: first introduced the idea of evolution through suggesting that the parts of the body used extensively grow larger and stronger, whilst used parts become weaker and smaller. These changes are passed to offspring. Experimented by cutting the tails of mice and examining offspring.


Outline the experiments conducted by Gregor Mendel

He considered the inheritance of particular characteristics (traits) and discovered the basic principles of hereditary by breeding garden peas in carefully controlled experiments. He showed that inherited characteristics are passed as discrete 'units' from parents to offspring, allowing him to detect patterns in inheritance and predict ratios using mathematical formulae. He studied the inheritance of each monohybrid-cross individually for 2 filial generations


Identify some the the characteristics that Mendel studied

Stem length
Colour of seed contents
Shape of seed
Colour of flower
Colour of unripe pod
Flower position
Pod Shape


Outline some of the experimental techniques Mendel used which makes his experiments successful

1. He forced plants to cross-pollinate by removing immature stamens and hand-painting polled onto stigma. Covered plants with a bag
2. He started his experiments with pure-breeding plants
3. Used large sample sizes and kept accurate results
4. Used mathematical analysis (quantitative data)
5. Made justified conclusions about the Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment


Describe Mendel's results from his experiments

From his experiments, he found that the F2 generation consistently had a 3:1 ratio of dominant to recessive factors expressed.


Describe the four conclusions that Mendel came to

1. Alternative versions of genes account for variation in inherited characteristics
2. For each character, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent
3. If two alleles differ, the dominant allele is always expressed
4. Two alleles for each character segregates during gamete production (Law of Segregation). Law of Independent Assortment refers to the idea that the segregation of alleles is completely random and is independent of other genes, if on different pairs of homologous chromosomes.


Define: Genotype

an organism's 'genetic makeup', comprises of an organism's two alleles. Whilst genotypes can be different, phenotypes can be the same


Define: Homozygous

An organism having two identical alleles for a gene


Define: Heterozygous

An organism have two different alleles for a gene


Identify the two different types go genotypes an organism can have in a monohybrid cross

Heterozygous or homozygous


Define: allele, using examples

an alternative form of gene. Whilst there can be more than 2 alleles for a specific gene, an organism can only have two (eg. wrinkled seed and round seed are two alleles for he seed shape gene)


Define: gene, using examples

a discrete unit of hereditary information, consisting of a specific section (locus) of DNA. Each gene has two copies (alleles)


Define: Dominant allele

an allele that is always fully expressed


Define: Recessive allele

an allele that is completely masked by a dominant allele as is only expressed in the phenotype when in a homozygous pair


Identify some of the reasons why Mendel's work was not considered initially

Mendel presented his findings to scientists in 1865 and published a paper in 1866. His findings were not accepted until 1900 (cell division discovery) as they were:
- radical and progressive
- only a small group of scientists heard him
- mathematical calculations were advanced
- he had no reputation and was shy


Describe the current use of pedigree trees in science

Pedigree trees are used to trace the inheritance of a gene within a family. They are currently used to trace genetic diseases/disorders to predict the likelihood of potential offspring inheriting the disorder.


Describe the process of hybridisation and give an example

Hybridisation is the process in which two organisms from different breed/varieties, are cross-bred to produce an offspring with more favourable characteristics (hybrid vigour). Labradoodles are a cross-breed of labradors and poodle, with the aim of producing offspring that do not shed and have a tolerant temperament. Whilst hybridisation is able to produce hybrid vigour, offspring are often sterile so the process has to be repeated.


Describe the work of Theodor Boveri and the conclusions he made

He worked with sea urchin eggs, fertilising some with and some without a nucleus. He found that the normal eggs hatched into larvae with characteristics from both parents and the egg without the nucleus only had the characteristics from the sperm and has only half the number of chromosomes.
He thus concluded that a complete set of chromosomes is needed for normal development and that genes are found on chromosomes in the nucleus - they are the carriers of heredity.


Describe the work of Walter Sutton and the conclusions he made

He studied the formation of sperm cells in grasshoppers. His observations revealed that chromosomes occurred in homologous pairs in diploid cells, during reduction division this number is halved (one chromosome in a homologous pair) and that fertilisation restores the diploid number.
He thus concluded that alleles of a gene occur on homologous chromosomes, which are separated (Law of Random Segregation) and that these genes on chromosomes seperate independently of genes on other homologous chromosomes (Law of Independent Assortment). He made the connection between the behaviour of chromosomes and Mendel's laws.


Discuss how Sutton and Boveri's work contributed to the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance.

Both scientists identified the important of chromosomes during gamete formation, making the connection to Mendel's laws of hereditary. They thus concluded the several factors are present on one chromosome ('gene linkage')


Describe the chemical composition of chromosomes and genes

Chromosomes are comprised mostly of DNA. The DNA is wound around histones (protein) which forms a chromosomes. DNA is comprised of many genes, which contain a repeating subunit in a double-strand. The monomer is a nucleotide; a phosphate group, sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. The bases complementarily pair to form the double strand.


Describe the composition of genes and briefly outline the discoveries which lead to this understanding

DNA is a polymer of nucleotides (phosphate group, pentose sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases). This discovery that the amount of adenine in DNA is similar to the amount of thymine (and likewise with cytosine and guanine) lead to the understanding that they were complementary pairs. Watson and Crick's understanding of the structure of DNA is dependant on Franklin and Maurice's crystallography images. The images indicated a double-helix, which supported their idea their idea of the complementary pairs forming 'rungs'


Identify and describe the three mechanisms of variation which involve the behaviour of chromosomes

1. Independent Assortment (only Metaphase 1): the orientation of the chromosomes in a homologous pair relative to the poles of each cell is random. The possible combinations are 2^n
2. Crossing Over (Metaphase 1 and Late Prophase): homologous chromosomes come together as pairs and line along the equator. Where they touch, the genetic information is switched.
3. Random Fertilisation


Identify the events in gamete formation which result in the variability of offspring

1. Random Segregation
2. Crossing Over
3. Independent Assortment


Describe how sexual reproduction influences the variability of offspring

Random fertilisation: the sperm which fertilises the ova is completely random.


Explain by co-dominance and sex-linkage are variation to Mendel's ratios

Mendel's experiments were mono-hybrid crosses, meaning that each character he studied was only influenced by one gene


Define and explain co-dominance

When both alleles inherited from homozygous parents are simultaneously expressed, producing a third phenotype (e.g. Roan Cattle)


Define and explain sex-linkage

When a particular gene is found on the 23rd pair of chromosomes. As a result, a particular gender is favoured for the inherence of a gene. Common X-linked genes are haemophilia and muscular dystrophy


Describe Morgan's contribution to the understanding of sex-linkage

Thomas Morgan studied fruit flies (Drosophilia melenogaster) as they bred every two weeks and only had 4 pairs of chromosomes. After a year of breeding a simple male with white eyes was produced (mutation). He breezed this fly with a female red-eyed fly and found in the F2 generation that only male flies has white eyes. He thus deduced that the loci for eye colour was on the X-chromosome, as males only need a simple copy of the mutant recessive gene for it to be expressed. He concluded that linked gene could only be inherited separately if crossing-over occurred.


Define the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance

1. The behaviours of pairs of alleles can be explained by the movement of chromosomes during meiosis (Sutton and Boveri)
2. Pairs of alleles are carried on pairs of homologous chromosomes (Morgan)
3. Mendel's laws are explained by the separation and recombination of pairs of alleles if they are not sex-linked and they show dominance


Outline how the environmental affects the expression of a gene

The environment can affect the phenotypic expression of a gene. Hydrangeas change colour flower in soil of different pHs.


Outline an experiment conducted to observe the effect of environment of the expression of a gene

Three different pertinent dished of grass seed were placed in different conditions (no light, indirect light, direct light). As a result, the seeds with indirect grew the most, thus revealing how the environment affects the expression of genes


Outline the process of DNA Replication

1. Two strands of DNA separate
2. Free nucleotides in the nucleus complementary base pair to the existing strand of DNA
3. Nucleotides longitudinally link


Explain the significance of DNA Replication

DNA replication is the process of a DNA strand completely duplicating, so that two identical DNA strands are produced. This is necessary for both mitosis and meiosis as otherwise an incorrect number of chromosomes would be present in the daughter cells. As DNA complementary base pairs, each single strand contains the information to reconstruct its complementary strand.


Outline the process of Protein Synthesis

1. Transcription: synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA. RNA is formed by complementary base-pairing with the non-coding strand of DNA, so that the mRNA strand is identical to the coding strand of DNA. This is achieved by a gene being 'unzipped' by helices (enzyme) forming a transcription bubble. The formed mRNA then leaves the nucleus through a nuclear pore the the ribosome
2. Translation: synthesis of polypeptide chain. mRNA is translated in series' of three base pairs (codons) to procure an amino acid. This is achieved by the tRNA, which carries a specific amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosome, which complementary base pairs with a codon (anti-codon).


Identify the the need for mRNA is protein synthesis

DNA can not leave the nucleus. So, mRNA transcripts the genetic code from DNA and transports it the ribosomes for translation.


Explain the impact of mutation to the generation of new alleles

Mutations are random changes to DNA information, which can lead to the expression of new alleles. They are a source of variation necessary for evolution by natural selection


Identify and describe the two types of mutation

1. Chromosomal mutation: large changes to genetic code on chromosomes (duplication, inversion, translocation, amplification)
2. Point mutation: chemical changes to one base pair. (Substitution - point mutation, Deletion/Insertion - frameshift mutation) Point mutations can affect the the codon structure and thus the proteins that are produced.


Outline the contributions made by Wilkins and Franklin to the understanding of DNA

Made a crystal of DNA (cystallography) and obtain X-ray diffraction patterns to study its structure. Wilkins was also to produce crystalline molecules for examination and Franklin was able to produce clear diffraction images


Outline the contribution made by Watson and Crick to the understanding of DNA

Accredited with discovering the structure of DNA, particularly in regards to the complementary base pairs that joined inwardly, giving the idea for a mechanisms of replication. They worked together making large models to deduce DNA's structure.


Assess the quality of collaboration and communication between Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin

Overall poor, whilst Watson and Crick worked well, Wilkins and Franklin has district so did not communicate well. Wilkins allowed Watson and Crick to see Franklin's work without consent


Identify how the discovery of DNA structure allowed for further explanations about DNA

- DNA stores all instructions for biochemical processes
- DNA self-replicates
- Genetic information in DNA is transferred to offspring
- DNA brings variation


Identify some of the observations Darwin made in developing his theory of Natural Selection

1. All species produce excessive offspring; 'struggle for existence'
2. Natural variation occurs in a species
3. Organisms with favourable variations are more likely to survive
4. Favourable traits thus become more frequent in a population.


Identify the two primary types of radiation

1. UV radiation: results in deletion or thymine bases in the same strand to link together.
2. Ionising Radiation: can break DNA strands or chromosomes.


Identify a situation which provides evidence for the mutagenic nature of radiation

Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986): nuclear power plant exploded, resulting in immediate death of surrounding individuals and long-term impacts due to the contamination of water and soil supplies. Individuals in Chernobyl have been more likely to develop cancer or produce offspring which abnormalities due to the mutation in gametes.


Explain how an understanding of variation and its source accounts for the theory of evolution

- Variations enable specific organisms to be favoured by the environment
- New alleles and thus variation arise by mutation
- Variation can be amplified through isolation (Allopatric - geographic, Sympatric - behavioural)
- Darwin's theory relies on variation in phenotype, as a consequence of variations in genotype. Meiosis, fertilisation and Mendel's laws contribute to how variation is spread.


Define 'Punctuated Equilibrium' and how differs from Darwin's proposal

Punctuated Equilibrium: when species diverge from their ancestors in rapid spurts, then change very little over time. Mechanisms for sudden change include mutation and natural disaster. This is supported by the fossil records.
Darwin's belief in gradualism differs as he believed that evolution is the accumulation of many small changes over thousands of generations.


Describe how Beadle and Tatum contributed to an understanding of the functioning of DNA, and how they proved this.

B and T contributed to the understanding that DNA inherited by an organism directs the synthesis of proteins, the link between phenotype and genotype.
They conducted an experiment in the 1940s, exploring the effect of mutation on the bread mould, Neurospora crassa. They exposed bread mould to X-rays and found that three types of mutant mould were unable to produce arginine (amino acid) as a metabolic block to different steps in the pathway of the amino acid. They thus conduced that each type of mutant mould lack a certain enzyme to catalyse a step in the process. They produced the 'one gene - one enzyme' hypothesis, which was later changed to the 'one gene - one polypeptide chain'.


Identify and describe a modern example of natural selection

Staphylococcus and penicillin: Penicillin is used as an anti-biotic to treat and control the growth of bacteria. By 1951, penicillin was only effective in 15% of cases. In 1961, a new, resistance strand of Staphylococcus was formed. This was due to natural selection.


Describe how Artificial Insemination alters the genetic composition of a population

Sperm from a selected male is inserted into a selected female. Altered genetic composition as only certain males carrying alleles which will produced desired traits are chosen. Thus, desirable alleles are more frequent in a population.


Describe how Artificial Pollination alters the genetic composition of a population

Stigma from a chosen plant is pollinated using the pollen from a chosen anther. Altered genetic composition as only the pollen carrying the genes which code for the desirable phenotypes are chosen, resulting in an increased frequency of those alleles in a population.


Describe how Cloning alters the genetic composition of a population

Cloning produces genetically identical offspring. The genetic composition of a population is thus significantly decreases in variability as it only contains the alleles present in the parent organism, and any mutations that may be occurred. All alleles present in the parent will be present in all offspring.


Recount the process of artificial insemination

1. Stud male is selected
2. Sperm is diluted from stud cattle
3. Sperm is deep frozen
4. Female on heat is selected
5. Rectal and vaginal regions are cleaned
6. Gloved hand inserted into rectum
7. Inseminaton rod (containing thawed sperm) in inserted into vagina and into the uterus for implantation.


Recount the process of artificial inseminaton

1. Immature anthers from a wheat plant removed
2. Different plant with desirable traits selected
3. Polled from selected plant is hand painted into stigma of plant with alters removed
4. Plastic/paper bag covers fertilised plant.
5. Fertilisation occurs


Identify the reason for the production of transgenic species

1. Produce nutrient efficient foods
2. Produce plants with greater resistance to disease
3. Produce proteins or genes deficient in humans


Identify the 4 techniques used to introduce desired gene into a recipient's DNA in the transgenic species process

1. Micro-injection
2. Biolistics
3. Electroporation
4. Transduction


Recount the process for producing transgenic cotton

1. Cotton seedlings placed on growth medium
2. Seedlings grow into calluses
3. Calluses are transferred to a liquid growth medium and given hormones to grow into plant embryos
4. Bt gene is removed from Bacillus thuringiensis using restriction enzymes
5. Using a vector, Bt gene is transferred to cotton genome
6. Embryos are developed into a tissue culture


Recount the process for producing transgenic goats

1. Restriction enzymes (restriction endonucleases) remove the human gene coding for antithrombin protein
2. Human DNA is annealed to goat DNA strand that codes for milk production.
3. Fertilised goat embryos are isolated
4. Pronuclear microinjection occurs to insert recombinant DNA into goat embryo
5. Embryos implanted into surrogate mother
6. Some embryos developing into transgenic species


Describe the short term and long terms impacts of AI on the genetic diversity of species

ST: increases genetic variability as new combinations of alleles are introduced.
LT: decreases genetic variability as desirable characteristics are more frequently passed from each generation of cattle to their offspring, thus increasing the expression of chosen traits. Most offspring will receive the desired alleles. Decreases genetic combinations.


Describe the short term and long term impacts of AP on the genetic diversity of species

ST: increases genetic variability are new combinations of alleles are formed. (Eg. William Farrer hybridised wheat)
LT: genetic diversity decreases as alleles for chosen characteristics are more frequently passed on to offspring.


Describe the short term and long term impacts of Cloning on the genetic diversity of species

ST: limits genetic diversity as few parents are chosen to produce clones and have very similar characteristics. All offspring will carry the same alleles as their parents, with no variation.
LT: genetic diversity of further decreased as the presence of specific genotypes are more frequent, resulting in increasing similarity between cloned organisms.


Identify the impact of a decrease in the genetic diversity of species

A population's ability to respond and survive to environmental changes is decreases as more of the population will be impacted by a selective pressure.


Recount the process for cloning a carrot

1. Section of carrot root removed
2. Cells are separated in a blender
3. Cells placed on nutrient medium
4. Cels undergo mitosis
5. Artificial embryo develops
6. Platelet cultured and transferred to soil
7. Carrot is genetically identical to parent


Recount the process for cloning a sheep

1. Somatic cells (udder) retrieved form sheep 1
2. DNA removed from somatic cells
3. Ova retrieved from different sheep
4. Nucleus removed from ova (enucleation)
5. Somatic cell DNA injected from ova cell
6. Enucleated cell undergoes cell division
7. Implanted into surrogate mother
8. Organism is genetically identical to sheep 1


Explain the environmental ethical issues concerning the use of transgenic species

Transgenic species decreases the biodiversity and genetic variability of species, which can endanger the survival of a species as there is less variation for some organisms to survive.
Asserts humans are a creative superior, altering the genome of species according to the desires of the breeder, rather than selective pressures.
Allow for the development of higher quality produce and medical therapies (Bt Cotton and transgenic goats)


Explain the financial and social justice issues concerning the use of transgenic species

Increases the quality of plants and organisms, allowing them to survive to maturity.
Enables a greater financial return for farmers due to higher quality produce.
Due to patenting, cost of accessing transgenic species limits individual's accessibility to technology. This increases the cost of products from consumers and disadvantages developing nations who are unable to afford technology.


Explain the medical issues concerning the use of transgenic species

Transgenic goats carrying DNA to produce antithrombin protein in milk has allowed humans with the protein deficiency to access protein.
Produces food with a high nutrient value
Bt cotton reduces the need for pesticides, reducing the exposure of chemicals into the environment.
Sustained implications are unknown


Explain the animals and human rights issues concerning the use of transgenic species

Assist in food shortages due to higher tolerant produce
Restricts individual's access to food, due to the introduction of genes from other organisms. Some may perceive this technology as 'humanising' animals.