2. Communism And The Russian Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2. Communism And The Russian Revolution Deck (27)
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1
Q

The word communism comes from a French word _____ which meaning belonging to all.

A

Commun

2
Q

When did the ideas of communism develop fully?

A

During the industrial revolution

3
Q

Describe the Industrial Revolution.

A

When hundreds of thousands of people left the agricultural areas and moved to the towns to find work in new factories.
Their living and working conditions were bad and many lived in severe poverty.
A large gap in wealth developed between a small number of rich people and the majority who were poor.

4
Q

What economic system was the result of industrialization?

A

Capitalism

5
Q

By the ____ capitalism became the dominant economic system 8n Western Europe and North America.

A

1850’s

6
Q

What did philosophers and reformers speak out against?

A

Between those who had wealth and power and those who owned very little.

7
Q

What did these reformers suggest would be best for society?

A

It would be a fairer place if people shared common ownership of resources.

8
Q

Why did they think common ownership was the answer?

A

It would reduce the divisions in society and would lead to co-operation instead of competition and conflict.

9
Q

What was the Industrial Revolution?

A

Changes in society as a result of new industrial machinery which made production easier.

10
Q

What is socialism?

A

A system in which all classes have equal opportunities.

11
Q

What are the key features of communism?(5)

A
  • Resources are owned by state on behalf of the people; no private ownership; all profits used for the benefit of society as a whole
  • Greater equality and No class divisions by an unequal spread of wealth
  • Government control of the economy, all decisions to be centrally planned by it
  • Housing, medical services, the education system, and all social services provided free by the state
  • Equality and the common good are valued more than individual freedom
12
Q

Who was Karl Marx?

A

He was a German philosopher who lived most of his life in exile in London.

13
Q

Why did Marx live in exile?

A

He wrote newspaper articles which authorities believed encouraged a revolution in Germany in 1848.

14
Q

What was Marx concerned about after the Industrial Revolution?

A

Social inequalities

15
Q

Marx believed a ____ system in which a few wealthy individuals exploited the mass of workers, was morally wrong, would lead to conflict and in the end would fail.

A

Capitalist

16
Q

What is Marxism?

A

The first form of communism, consisting of the strict application of Marx’s ideas.

17
Q

What Marxism based on?

A

On the belief that all human history was based on a struggle between those who had wealth and power, and those who were poor and powerless.

18
Q

In the Industrial Age in which he lived, he believed that this struggle was between the _____ and the _____.

A

Capitalists

Proletariat

19
Q

What was the proletariat?

A

Urban working class.

20
Q

What types of revolution did Marx believe needed to happen to bring about change?

A

An ARMED revolution.

21
Q

Once power is seized what would the working class need to do?(2)

A
  • Establish a ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ for a while to prevent old rulers from getting back into power.
  • They would also need to nationalize factories,banks, land and communications systems in order to redistribute wealth.
22
Q

What is dictatorship of the proletariat ?

A

The control of government in an inflexible way, by the proletariat.

23
Q

What was Marx’s most famous book?

A

Das Kapital

24
Q

Marx’s ideas attracted a following of many ______ and Political _____ throughout Europe, including Russia.

A

Intellectuals

Activists

25
Q

Where did Marx believe that a proletariat revolution would take place?

A

It would happen in an industrialized country such as Germany or Britain, where there were many workers in the cities.

26
Q

Contrary to Marxism what type of country has the first communist revolution?

A

A country with little industry and where most people were peasant farmers in rural areas, RUSSIA.

27
Q

Summary of Karl Marx’s ideas:(9)

A
  • fully industrialized society
  • clash between classes
  • armed revolution by working class
  • dictatorship of the proletariat
  • nationalization of resources to redistribute wealth
  • socialist state
  • no need for governments
  • communist society