[2] Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [2] Neoplasia Deck (57):
1

Characteristics of Neoplasia

1. Monoclonal
2. Uncontrolled
3. Irreversible

2

What can you use to determine monoclonality of a cell line?

G6PD Isoform

3

Clonality of B Cells can be determined via which method?

Ig Light Chain Phenotype

4

Aflatoxins usually cause what kind of carcinomas?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

5

Alkylating agents are associated with what kind of cancers?

Lymphoma

6

Asbestos is associated with what kind of cancers?

Lung cancer and Mesothelioma

7

Arsenic is associated with what kind of cancers?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Lung Cancer
Angiosarcoma

8

Patients exposed to asbestos are more prone to developing this kind of cancer

Lung Cancer > Mesothelioma

9

Most carcinogenic component of cigarette smoke

Polycyclic Hydrocarbons

10

Nitrosamines are associated with what kind of cancers?

Stomach Cancer

11

EBV is associated with which cancers?

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Burkitt Lymphoma
CNS Lymphoma

12

EBV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma is associated with these kinds of patients

Chinese Males
African Americans

13

HHV-8 is associated with which cancer?

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

14

HBV and HCV are associated with which cancer?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

15

What are the high risk HPV subtypes?

16, 18, 31, 33

16

Ionizing radiation is commonly associated with this cancer

AML
CML
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (Most common)

17

Most common source of non-ionizing radiation

UV-B (Sunlight)

18

Astrocytomas are related to which oncogene overexpression?

PDGFB

(Platelet Derived Growth Factor B)

19

Overexpression of ERB2B2 (HER2/Neu) is linked to what kind of cancers?

Breast Carcinoma

20

Overexpression of RET is associated with what kind of cancers?

MEN 2A
MEN 2B

(Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia)

Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid

21

Overexpression of KIT is associated with what kind of tumors?

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

22

What category of protooncogene is HER2/Neu

Growth Factor Receptor

23

What category of protooncogene is PDGF

Growth Factor

24

What category of protooncogene is RAS GEne Family

Signal Transducers

25

What category of protooncogene is c-MYC

Nuclear Regulators

26

What category of protooncogene is CDK4

Cell Cycle Regulation

27

What category of protooncogene is RET

Growth Factor Receptor

28

What category of protooncogene is KIT

Growth Factor Receptor

29

What category of protooncogene is CCND1

Cell Cycle Regulation

30

RAS associates with GTP to send signals, what protein helps cleave a phosphate off GTP to turn it off?

GTP-ase Associated Protein

(GAP)

31

ABL protooncogene overexpression is associated with which cancers?

CML
Some ALLs

32

Philadelphia Chromosome is a translocation of which gene? Which cancer is it associated with?

Translocation of Chromosome 9 and 22

ALL

33

Burkitt Lymphoma is associated with which protooncogene?

c-MYC

34

N-MYC upregulation is associated with which tumor?

Neuroblastoma

35

Burkitt Lymphoma is caused by a translocation of the MYC gene from which chromosome to the IgH of which chromosome?

IgH of Chromosome 14 to the MYC gene of Chromosome 8

t(8,14)

36

CCND1 (Cyclin D1) is associated with which tumors?

Mantle Cell Lymphoma

37

How does an overexpression of Cyclin D1 cause unregulated growth

Allows the cell to go from G1 to S phase

38

Mantle Cell Lymphoma is caused by a translocation of which genes on which chromosomes?

Translocation of the IgH on Chromosome 14 and the CCND1 on Chromosome 11

t(11,14)

39

What is the hallmark of malignancy?

Metastatic Potential

40

What intermediate filament is associated with Epithelium?

Keratin

41

What intermediate filament is associated with Mesenchyme?

Vimentin

42

What intermediate filament is associated with Muscle?

Desmin

43

What intermediate filament is associated with Neuroglia?

GFAP

44

What intermediate filament is associated with Neurons?

Neurofilament

45

If a specimen is PSA positive under immunohistochemistry, what kind of cell is the specimen?

Prostatic Epithelium

46

If a specimen is Chromogranin positive under immunohistochemistry, what kind of cell is the specimen?

Neuroendocrine Cells

47

If a specimen is S-100 positive under immunohistochemistry, what kind of cell is the specimen?

Melanoma

48

A pathologist reports that a tumor specimen is keratin positive, what type of tumor are you dealing with?

A. Carcinoma
B. Melanoma
C. Lymphoma
D. Sarcoma

A. Carcinoma

(Epithelium-derived due to Keratin)

49

What is the serum tumor marker released by prostate cancer?

PSA

50

Single most important prognostic factor for malignant tumors

Metastasis

51

How does downregulation of E-Cadherin promote invasion and local growth?

Cadherins keep cells attached to one another, destruction allows the cell to spread locally

52

The Basement Membrane is composed of?

Laminin
Collagen IV

53

What do malignant cells attach to in the extracellular matrix to spread locally?

Fibronectin

54

What is the characteristic spread of carcinomas?

Lymphatic Spread

55

What is the characteristic spread of sarcomas?

Hematogenous Spread

56

Which carcinomas spread hematogenously?

Renal Cell Carcinoma (Renal Vein)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hepatic Vein)
Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid
Choriocarcinoma

57

What is the characteristic spread of ovarian carcinoma?

Body cavity seeding (Omentum of the abdomen)