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Flashcards in 2. Sedation Deck (63):
1

What are the advanced behavior guidance strategies

-Protective stabilization
-Sedation
-General anesthesia

2

What are the four stages of Piaget's stages of cognitive development

-Sensorimotor stage
-Preoperational stage
-Concrete operational stage
-Formal operaitons

3

Describe the Piaget's sensorimotor stage

-Birth to 24 months
-Little to no meaningful verbal communication
-Hyperaware of people around them
-Perceptive to non-verbal communication
-**Key feature= object permanence (meaning they understand objects exist even if they can't physically see them in that moment)

4

Describe the Piaget's preoperational stage

-2-5 years
-Begin to use language
-Can form mental symbols
-Language is concrete and literal
-Limited logical reasoning
-Egocentric view of the world

5

Describe the Piaget's Concrete operational stage

-6-11 y/o
-Increased logical reasoning
-Still have hard time with abstract ideas
-Benefit from concrete instructions

6

Describe the Piaget's formal operation stage

-11+ years
-Can think about abstrations and hypothetical concepts
-Reason analytically

7

What are the three classifications of temperment classified by Chess and Thomas and describe each

Easy temperment
-Mostly positive mood with mild/moderate intensity
-Adapts quickly
-Approaches new situations

Difficult temperment
-Withdraws from new situations
-Slow adaptability
-Negative emotion of high intensity

Slow to warm up temperment
-Shy
-Slow adatability
-Negative emotional expressions of low intensity

8

At what age do kids start to warm up to strangers (separate from parents)

school age

9

What are the typical fears of an infant/todler

-Strangers
-Loud sounds
-Sudden movements
-Falling

10

Lap exams should be done for what ages

infants/toddlers (good for parental involvement)

11

At what age can kids be managed with language

pre-school age

12

What are the different variables associated with uncooperative behavior

-Dental fear (realistic v.s theoretical)
-Demographics (race, gender, household,etc.)
-Coping skills (generally increases with age and varies among individuals)
-Pain (Subjective, anxiety upregulated pain)
-Parental anxiety

13

Difference between realistic and theorized dental fear

Realistic is they have had the bad experience themselves and theorized is when someone tells them a bad experience

14

Define minimal sedation

-Drug induced state (Still conscious)
-Responds normally to verbal commands
-impaired cognitive and coordination
-Ventilation and CV function unaffected

15

Moderate sedation definition

-Respond to purposeful commands (Still conscious)
-No intervention required to maintain airway
-Spontaneous ventilation adequate
-CV function usually maintained

16

Deep Sedation

-Still conscious
-Can't be easily aroused (respond to repeated purposeful or painful stimuli)
-Ability to maintain airway and ventilation may be impaired
-Spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate
-May be partial or complete loss of protective airway reflexes

17

General anesthesia definition

-Unconscious
-Not arousable
-Ability to maintain airway often impaired
-CV function may be impaired

18

Routes of sedation agents

-Inhalation *
-Oral**
-Nasal
-Rectal
-Submucosal
-Intramuscular
-IV

19

What are the disadvantages of oral sedation and advantages

Advantages
-Often well tolerated
-No pain

Disadvantages
-Most variable
-Can't titrate
-Reversal is tough
-Recovery time may be prolonged

20

Why is oral sedation highly variable

dependent on absorption of GI mucosa

21

Recovery time of oral sedation is dependent on

metabolism of the drug

22

What are common pharmacologic classes of oral sedation meds

-Anti-histamines
-Benzodiazepines
-Sedative hypnotics
-Narcotics

23

Antihistamines used for oral sedation include

-Hydroxyzine
-diphenydramine (benadryl)
-promethazine (phenergan)

24

Benzos used for oral sedation are

-Diazepam (valium)
-Midazolam (versed)

25

What sedative hypnotic drug is used in oral sedation

chloral hydrate

26

Narcotics used for oral sedation are

-Meperidine (Demerol)
-Sufentanil (intranasal)

27

What is the antagonist of narcotics

naloxone (narcan)

28

Narcan is given (IV/IM)

both

29

Benzo antagonist is

flumenazil

30

Flumenazil is administered how

IV

31

What ASA classification should a child be for sedation

ASA I
ASA II with consideration**

32

Uncontrolled asthma are (good/bad) candidates for sedation are

bad

33

T/F LA is still needed with sedation

t

34

Describe the 5 different classifications of tonsil size

** Keep in mind child tonsils are larger than adult tonsils**
-0= Surgically removed tonsils
-1= Tonsils hiden within tonsil pillars
-2= Tonsils extending to the pillars
-3= tonsils are beyond the pillars
-4=Tonsils extend to midline

35

Caution should be used with sedation with kids that fall under the classification of _ tonsils

3 and greater

36

Sedation contraindications

-Patient able to be managed with basic behavior management
-ASA III and greater (and some ASA II)
-Extensive treatment plan (should do general anesthesia)
-Recent illness

37

Sedation complications

-Compromised airway (hypoventilation, hypoxemia, apnea, hypotension and cardiopulmonary arrest)
-Seizure
-Allergy
-Failure to sedate (kids start crying/ become hyperactive)

38

Instruction to parents for sedation

-Notify of changes in child's health (recent illness ie.)
-Restricted food and liquids prior to sedation
-Loose fitting clothes
-Don't bring other kids to appointment
-Have two adults some one can monitor child's breathing

39

Why are food and liquids restricted prior to sedation

-Reduce risk of aspiration if nauseous
-Better absorption of sedative meds on empty stomach

40

What are the min. fasting periods for each item
-Infant formula
-Light meal (not fatty food)
-Clear liquid
-Non-human milk
-Breast milk

-Infant formula 6 hr
-Light meal 6 hr
-Clear liquid- 2hr
-Non-human milk - 6hr
-Breast milk - 4 hr

41

What should you do if the child falls asleep after the appointment

-Check breathing every 3-5 mins
-If snoring occurs reposition the head by lifting chin

42

How long should a parent watch the child after the appointment

the whole day

43

What are occasional side effects of sedation

nausea and vomiting

44

What should be given for post op pain

tylenol or motrin (can also use if child has mild fever and pain afterward)

45

How should food be reintroduced after sedaiton

-Small amounts of liquids
-Move up to solid foods as tolerated

46

Minimum of _ number of people are needed when sedating

2 (practioner and assistant)

47

Roles of practitioner and assitant

Practitioner
-Treatment
-Drug admin.
-Have skills to rescue

Assistant
-Monitor vitals
-Assist in rescue
-Emergency cart

48

Monitoring of vitals should include

-Pulse oximeter
-BP
-Monitor ventilation (precordial stethoscope or capnograph)

49

Recording or respiration rate (ventilation) occurs how frequently

every 5 min

50

BP should be recorded how often

every 5 min

51

Pulse oximeter is monitored how frequently

continuous

52

T/F Sedative drugs can be given to children outside the dental facility

f

53

What on-site monitoring devices are needed for rescue

-Emergency cart
-Must have necessary equipment to resuscitate a non-breathing child non-concious kid
-Must be able to provide continuous life support
-Equipment/drugs checked and maintained

54

What does SOAPME stand for

S= suction
O= Oxygen
A= Airway
P=Pharmacy (basic life support drugs)
M= Monitors
E= Equipment (AED/Defibrillator)

55

Health evaluation before sedation must look at what parameters

-Health history
-ROS
-Age/weight
-Baseline vitals (HR, BP, Respiratory rate, and temp)
-Physical exam (airway eval)

56

What should be documented during treatment

-Time-based record: Name route, site, dose, and pt effect of administered drugs
-Documents inspired conc. of O2 and N2O during administration
-Continuous monitoring of O2 saturation and heart rate
-Intermittent recording of BP and respiratory rate

57

Documentation after treatment

-Time and condition of child
-Document O2 sat on room air is safe for discharge

58

Discharge criteria

-CV function is satisfactory and stable
-Airway patency is satisfactory and stable
-Patient is easily arousable
-Responsiveness is at or very near pre-sedation level
-protective reflexes are intact
-Can talk (return to pre-sedation level)
-Patient can sit up unaided
-State of hydration is adequate
-**Can remain awake for at least 20 min in a quiet environment**

59

Young kids are particularly vulnerable to what sedation risks

-Effects on respiratory drive
-Patency of airway
-Protective reflexes
**Hypoxemia, laryngospasm, pulmonary aspiration, and apnea)
-Common for kids to fall into deeper level of sedation than intended

60

Max dose of articane

7mg/kg

61

Max dose of midazolam

0.25 mg - 1mg/kg (max single dose is 20 mg)

62

What level of conscious sedation is most desirable to achieve

moderate

63

Treatment under LA should be limited to how many quads

1-2