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Flashcards in 27 Deck (21):
1

How do amines behave?

As nucleophiles/bases

2

How do amines behave as bases?

The lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen are able to accept a proton

3

Solubility of amines

Generally soluble since they are able to form hydrogen bonds

4

Boiling points of amines

Lower than alcohols because oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen

5

How is a primary amine formed?

Haloalkane + excess ethanolic ammonia

6

How is a secondary amine formed?

Primary amine + haloalkane

7

How is a tertiary amine formed?

Secondary amine + haloalkane

8

How is an aromatic amine formed?

Nitrobenzene + 6[H] = phenylamine +2H2O
Sn, conc HCl, excess NaOH

9

What are the features of an amino acid?

Contains both NH2 and COOH

10

Amino acid reactions

Amine group reacts with acids to form salts
Carboxylic acid group reacts with alkalis to form salts
Carboxylic acid group reacts with alcohols to form esters

11

How is an amide formed?

Acyl chloride + ammonia/amine

12

What is an optical isomer?

Stereoisomers that are non super imposable images of each other

13

What do enantiomers do?

They rotate plane polarised light in different directions

14

What is a chiral centre?

A carbon attached to 4 different groups/atoms

15

Carboxylic acid + alcohol

Ester + water

16

Acyl chloride + alcohol

Ester + HCl

17

Carboxylic acid + amine

Amide + water

18

Acyl chloride + amine

Amide + HCl

19

Base hydrolysis

NaOH/H2O (add Na+)

20

Acid hydrolysis

HCl/H2O (add H)

21

Hydrolysis

Split ester/amide linkage