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Flashcards in 3. Cancer Deck (23)
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1

Cancer

Malignant neoplasm
Abnormal growth of cells that proliferate uncontrollably

2

Metastasis

Spread of cancer cells

3

Carcinogen

Cancer causing substance

4

Tumour

Any kind of mass forming lesion

5

Neoplasm

Autonomous growth of tissue which have escaped normal constraints on cell proliferation

6

Benign neoplasm

Remains localised
Can be cured by local surgery

7

Malignant neoplasm

Invade locally and/or spread to distant sites
More difficult to cure
Require chemotherapy

8

Hamartomas

Localised benign overgrowths of >,1 mature cell types
Malformed normal tissue

9

Heterotopias

Normal tissue found where not normally present

10

Classification of neoplasms

Stem: Cell origin
Suffix: Benign or Malignant

11

Suffix "Oma"

Benign tumour

12

Suffix "Sarcoma"

Malignant tumour

13

Malignant tumours with suffix "Oma"

Malignant lymphoma
Malignant melanoma
Hepatoma
Teratoma

14

Teratoma

Tumour derived from germ cells
Can contain tissue from all 3 germ cell layers
Can contain mature, immature tissue and/or cancer

15

Difference between benign & malignant tumours

Invasion
Metastasis
Differentiation
Growth pattern

16

Differentiation

How much do cells of tumour resemble cells of tissue its derived from

17

Growth pattern

How much does architecture of tumour resemble architecture of tissue its derived from

18

By which routes do malignant neoplasms spread?

Direct extension.
Haematogenous: Blood vessels
Lymphatic
Transcoelomic: Body cavities
Perineural: Nerves

19

How do we assess tumour spread?

1. Clinically
2. Radiologically
3. Pathologically

20

How do we describe tumour spread (stage)?

T = Tumour: tumour size or extent of local invasion
N = Nodes: No of lymph nodes involved
M = Metastases: presence of distant metastases

21

In terms of tumour prognosis, what is more important?

Stage

22

Grade

How differentiated is the tumour?

23

Stage

How far has the tumour spread?