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Flashcards in 3. Compounding Deck (15):
1

What is the most commonly used dosage form for oral medications?

A. Orally-dispersible tablets

B. Troches

C. Oral suspensions

D. Compressed tablets

E. Compressed capsules

D. Compressed tablets are the most commonly used dosage forms for oral medications.

2

Which of the following are used as ointments and can provide a protective barrier on the skin?

A. Agar, carrageenan and gelatin

B. Aquaphor, Aquabase, Eucerin, petrolatum

C. Acacia

D. Arlacel, Span, Myrj, Tween

E. Dry gum

B. Aquaphor, Aquabase, Eucerin, and petrolatum are examples of ointments.

3

Which of the following statements concerning mortars, pestles and spatulas is correct?

A. Wedgewood has a smoother surface than porcelain and is preferred for blending powders or pulverizing soft materials.

B. Porcelain is used for liquids and chemicals that are oily or will stain.

C. Bond paper should be used for weighing ointments and creams.

D. Generally large stainless steel spatula blades are used, except plastic spatulas are used for chemicals (e.g. iodine) that can react with stainless steel blades.

E. Glass mortars are best for triturating rough powders.

D.

4

Choose the correct statement concerning lotions, creams and ointments:

A. Creams have higher % of oil than lotions.

B. Lotions have higher % of oil than ointments.

C. Lotions are water in oil preparations.

D. Ointments wash off skin easily.

E. Creams provide a stronger skin barrier than ointments.

A. Lotions, creams and ointments are all oil in water preparations. Lotions have the most water, followed by creams (which are therefore thicker), followed by ointments (the most oil of the three).

4

Ethanol (alcohol) is used in tinctures (such as iodine tincture) because it can dissolve organic substances and in many other oral solutions, including some cough medicines. The pharmacist should be concerned with the following risks when using alcohol in medications: (Select ALL that apply.)

A. Toxicity

B. Interaction with prescription drugs, such as oral hypoglycemics and agents that can cause disulfiram-like reactions

C. Renal damage

D. It is illegal to dispense these preparations to minors

E. These preparations are regulated by the DEA

A, B. When one substance is dissolved in another, it forms a solution. Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) would also work as a solvent, but it has a high risk of toxicity. Alcohol can cause liver damage, but renal function decline is not caused by alcohol ingestion.

5

Select the agent/s used as thickeners:

A. Acacia

B. Lanolin, Aquaphor, Aquabase

C. Agar, carrageenan and gelatin

D. Arlacel, Span, Myrj, Tween

E. Petrolatum

C. Agar, carrageenan, and gelatin are common thickening agents used in compounds.

6

Sorbitol has many uses in drug delivery. Which of the following represent viable uses for sorbitol? (Select ALL that apply.)

A. Sweetener (sugar substitute)

B. Thickening agent in liquids

C. Plasticizer for gelatin capsules

D. Treatment of GI distress in patients with IBS

E. Suspending agent

A, B, C. Sorbitol can cause GI distress, including cramping. It may be particularly bothersome to patients with IBS. Sorbitol used to be given in a formulation of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) for the treatment of hyperkalemia, but the use of Kayexalate with sorbitol can result in GI (colonic) necrosis and is not recommended.

7

What is the term for the inactive ingredient that holds the tablet together and provides stability and strength?

A. A disintegrant

B. A binder

C. A flavoring

D. A lubricant

E. A polymer

B. The binder is an inactive ingredient (also called an excipient) that is added to hold the drug together and provide strength.

8

Which of the following definitions describes an emulsion?

A. A liquid preparation of soluble chemicals dissolved in solvents such as water, alcohol, or propylene glycol.

B. A semisolid dosage form used externally on the skin or mucous membranes.

C. A solid dosage form used to deliver medicine into the rectum, vagina or urethra.

D. A two-phase system of two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed through the other as small droplets.

E. A two phased-system of a finely divided solid in a liquid medium.

D. An emulsion is a two-phase system of two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed through the other as small droplets.

9

Which of the following terms is used to determine the amount of surfactant required for an emulsion?

A. The Noyes-Whitney Number

B. The Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) number.

C. The Degredation Coefficient (DC)

D. The Surfactant Coefficient Variable (SCV)

E. The pH

B. The amount of surfactant required is determined by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) number, which determines the relative degree of lipophilic and hydrophilic parts of the compound and (therefore) how much surfactant will be required to form the mixture together.

10

Which of the following definitions describes a solution?

A. A liquid preparation of soluble chemicals dissolved in solvents such as water, alcohol, or propylene glycol.

B. A solid dosage form used to deliver medicine into the rectum, vagina or urethra.

C. A semisolid dosage form used externally on the skin or mucous membranes.

D. A two-phase system of two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed through the other as small droplets.

E. A two phased-system of a finely divided solid in a liquid medium.

A. A solution is a liquid preparation of soluble chemicals dissolved in solvents such as water, alcohol, or propylene glycol.

11

Which of the following statements concerning emulsions and surfactants are correct? (Select ALL that apply.)

A. An emulsion is two or more liquids blended together into a suspension.

B. Surfactants, such as Tween, can be used when preparing emulsions.

C. Common examples of emulsions include propofol and mayonnaise.

D. An emulsion is two or more liquids which are not able to be blended together (they are immiscible).

E. Emulsions can be given IV.

B, C, D, E. An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids which are immiscible (the two substances do not form a suspension-which means they stay separate when you combine them). Oil-in-water emulsions are used for oral formulations; patients could not tolerate an emulsion that was water-in-oil due to poor taste. However, oil-in-water (o/w) (or water-in-oil, or w/o) emulsions are suitable for topicals (drugs applied to the skin). Surfactants (with their hydrophilic and lipophilic ends) exist at the interface between the oil and water phases to keep the preparation together. In addition to o/w and w/o emulsions can also be water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w). Emulsions are always liquid in liquid-the terms does not refer to solids in liquids, which are generally solutions or suspensions.

13

Which of the following statements concerning FDA-approved manufactured drug products is/are correct? (Select ALL that apply.)

A. FDA-approved and regulated drugs must have an approved NDA.

B. They must be produced under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs).

C. They must have an expiration date that is provided to the pharmacy.

D. They must each have an NDC number.

E. They include compounded preparations.

A, B, C, D. FDA-approved drug products must have an approved NDA, be produced under Good Manufacturing Practices, and have an NDC number. They must also have an expiration date that is provided to the pharmacy.

14

Which of the following correctly describes the use of Tween (polysorbate)? (Select ALL that apply.)

A. It is used most commonly as a thickening agent.

B. Tween is a surfactant.

C. Surfactants are compounds with polar sides and nonpolar sides.

D. Surfactants are used as wetting agents.

E. Surfactants are used most often in ointments.

B, C, D. Tween is a commonly used hydrophilic (water-loving), non-ionic (the head is not charged) surfactant. Tweens are usually used for oil in water emulsions. Surfactants decrease the surface tension of a liquid or between a liquid and a solid. They are used as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers and dispersants. Surfactants have polar and non-polar sides.

15

Which of the following statements concerning compounded medications is/are correct? (Select ALL that apply.)

A. Compounding is different from manufacturing since it is patient-specific (ordered by a prescriber for the patient).

B. Compounded medications are regulated by the State Boards of Pharmacy.

C. Each compounded formula must be assigned a unique NDC number.

D. Compounds can only be prepared in specialty compounding pharmacies.

E. Prescriptions for compounded medications cannot be refilled.

A, B. The key difference between compounding and manufacturing is that compounding is order specific, being prepared for a specific patient. Compounded medications are regulated by the State Boards of Pharmacy.

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