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Flashcards in 3 - Epidemiology, Indices Deck (80):
1

Epidemiology: The study of ____ and _____ in ______

Health
Disease
Populations

2

Epidemiology: Influenced by ______ (5 things)

Heredity
Biology
Physical environment
Social environment
Personal behavior

3

Prevalence definition

Number of cases of a disease in a designated population at a given time

4

What type of data does prevalence look at

Cross-sectional

5

Incidence definition

Rate at which a certain event occurs

Number of new cases of a specific disease occurring in a population during a given period

6

What type of data does incidence look at

Longitudinal

7

Sensitivity definition

Proportion of truly diseased persons in a screened population who are identified as diseased by a screening test

8

Sensitivity is the ______ rate

True positive

9

Sensitivity formula

TP / (TP + FN)

10

Specificity definition

Proportion of truly nondiseased persons who are identified by screening test

11

Specificity is the _______ rate

True negative

12

Specificity formula

TN / (TN + FP)

13

Positive predictive value

Probability that the person with positive test is truly diseased

14

Increase specificity, increase/decrease ______

Increase PPV

15

Increase sensitivity, increase/decrease _____

Increase NPV

16

Plaque Index, by who/when

Loe 1967

17

Plaque index scores, descriptions

0 - no plaque
1 - plaque discovered with probe
2- visual plaque
3 - abundance of plaque

18

Plaque index # sites per tooth

4

19

Components of Oral Hygiene Index - Simplfied

Plaque
Calculus
Stain

20

Oral Hygiene Index scores, descriptions

0 - No debris/stain
1 - Soft debris less than 1/3 tooth surface OR extrinsic stain w/out debris
2 - Soft debris >1/3, <2/3 exposed tooth
3 - Soft debris >2/3 exposed tooth

21

Oral Hygiene Index used in conjunction w/ _____

Russell Periodontal Index

22

O'Leary Plaque index description

Examine all teeth and total surfaces with plaque to get % of surfaces

23

Ramfjord Teeth

3
9
12
19
25
28

24

Navy Plaque Index teeth and # areas per teeth

#3,9,12,19,25,28
9 areas of each tooth
Score 0 or 1

25

W.H.O. index of choice

Turesky-Gilman-Glickman Modification of Quigley - Hein Plaque Index

26

Who came up with Navy Plaque Index

Elliott

27

WHO index scores 0-2

0 - No plaque
1 - Separate flecks of plaque at cervical
2 - Up to 1mm continuous plaque band

28

WHO index scores 3-5

3 - Plaque band >1mm, less than 1/3 surface
4 - Plaque band >1/3, <2/3
5 - Plaque band >2/3

29

Retention index scores

0 - No supraG roughness
1 - Caries/calculus supraG
2 - SubG roughness
3 - Gross roughness

30

Retention index by who

Loe 1967

31

Sulcular bleeding index scores

0 - None
1 - Bleeding from gentle probe
2 - BOP + color change
3 - BOP + color change + edema
4 - BOP + color + big edema
5 - Spontaneous bleeding

32

Sulcular bleeding index teeth #'s and sites

#5-12 and #21-28 (NO MOLARS!)

MDBL

33

Gingival Index scores

0 - no inflammation
1 - No BOP, slight color change
2 - BOP, redness
3 - Spontaneous bleeding

34

Gingival index by who

Loe 1967

35

Interdental bleeding index by who

Caton 1945

36

Interdental bleeding index description

Stim-U-Dent, insert and depress papilla 1-2mm X4. BOP in 15 seconds?

37

Periodontal Index by who

Russell

38

Periodontal Disease Index by who

Ramfjord

39

PDI Score 0-3

0 - No inflammation
1 - Localized mild/moderate inflammation
2 - Mild/moderate inflammation around tooth
3 - Severe gingivitis, spontaneous bleeding

40

PDI Score 4-6

4 - CAL <3mm
5 - CAL 4-6mm
6 - CAL >6mm

41

PDI sites on tooth

PDI good for what type of study

Facial and mesial

Longitudinal studies

42

PDI determines ___ and ____

Prevalence
Disease severity

43

WHO index of choice

Sites used

Overestimate? Underestimate?

Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN)

B, MB

Overestimates, uses worst score within sextant

44

European and Japanese studies use this

Community Periodontal Index (CPI)

45

CPI characteristics

WHO probe

Score 0-4

46

PSR Scores

0 - Healthy
1 - BOP, no calculus. Black visible
2 - BOP w/ calculus, black visible
3 - Colored area partially colored
4 - Colored area completely gone

47

Developed historical model for periodontal diseases

Marshall-Day 1955

48

Assumptions of Marshall-Day 1955

Linear progression of disease

GV --> ChP

All people w/ equal risk

49

What does NHANES stand for

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

50

NHANES 1 years

1971-1974

51

NHANES used ____ exam

Periodontal index (visual exam, no probing)

52

NHANES III years

1988-1994

53

NHANES tested where/what?

Random max/man quadrant

B, MB

54

NHANES III periodontitis overall prevalence, 3 severity's prevalence

35% overall

22% mild
10% moderate
3% advanced

55

NHANES III findings: Sex, age, racial

M > F

Prevalence increases with age

56

Who calculated "true prevalence" of periodontitis and with what data

Albandar 2011

NHANES III + 2001-2004

57

True prevalence w/ inflation factor

48.2% overall prevalence
30% mild
13% moderate
4% severe

58

____ in _____ describes prevalence of periodontitis in the US for the years ___ - ____

Eke
2012
2009-2010

59

NHANES Severe PD definition

2 or more interproximal sites on different teeth with >6mm AL and 1 or more interproximal site w/ >5mm PD

60

NHANES Moderate PD definition

2 or more interproximal sites on different teeth with >4mm AL OR 2 or more interproximal site w/ >5mm PD

61

NHANES Mild PD definition

2 or more interproximal sites on different teeth with >3mm AL and 2 or more interproximal sites with >4mm PD OR one site with >5mm PD

62

NHANES overall prevalence + trends

47.2% prevalence

Prevalence of total and moderate increases with age

Males, Mexican-Americans, low SES, smokers

63

NHANES 2009-2012 prevalence

45.9%

64

Eke 2016 describes what

State and local level data

Prevalence highest in New Mexico, lowest in Utah

Severe periodontitis highest in Louisiana, lowest in New Hampshire

65

Natural History of Periodontal Disease in Man, author and year

Loe

1978

66

Norwegian findings

Ratio of perio destruction did not increase significantly with age

Buccal surfaces greater attachment loss than interproximal

Age 30 mean LOA = 1mm

67

Sri Lankan findings

Attachment loss 0.3mm/year

Age 30 mean LOA = 3.1mm

Interproximal attachment loss greater than buccal

68

Loe 1986 article describes 3 groups. Groups/attachment loss/prevalence?

Rapid 1.1mm/year 8%

Moderate 0.05-0.5mm/year 81%

No progression 0.05mm/year 11%

69

Loe 1986 tooth loss

RP: 0.4 teeth, all teeth lost by 45

MP: 0.01 teeth, lost 3-4 teeth

NP: None

70

Risk Factor definition

Modifiable variable that increases probability

71

Risk factor implies ______ based on _____ studies

Causality

Longitudinal

72

Risk factor examples

Oral hygiene level
Pathogenic
Smoking
Systemic diseases

73

Risk Indicator definition

Potential risk factor

74

Risk indicator identified in _____ study, needs _____ study

Cross sectional

Longitudinal/Case control

75

Risk indicator example

Osteoporosis
HIV

76

Risk marker/predictor definition

Associated with disease occurrence as a predictive factor

77

Risk marker examples

BOP

History of periodontitis

78

Determinants definition

Associated with higher probability of disease, can't be modified

79

Determinant example

Age
Gender
Race
Disease experience

80

Odds ratio definition

Number of times greater is the likelihood of developing disease