3. Renal Outflow Disease Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Urology/Nephrology (Renal) > 3. Renal Outflow Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Renal Outflow Disease Deck (27):
1

Urinary tract (UT) diseases include (3)

UT infection (UTI)
UT obstruction (UTO)
UT malignancy

2

Examples of UTO include (3)

Renal stones
Tumours
Prostate hypertrophy

3

Urinary tract infections cause (2)

Usually E. coli infection
Also staph, fungi, virus, TB possible

4

Why are UTIs more common in females

Due to length of urethra

5

How do you decrease risk of UTI

Increased hydration/urine output

6

UTI predisposing factors (2)

Poor bladder emptying
Low urinary flow rates

7

Definition of cystitis

Bladder inflammation

8

Features of urine (2)

Sterile
Bacteria/blood/defence cells suggest infections

9

Indication of UTI

Microscopic haematuria

10

UTI investigation

MSSU (mid-stream sample of urine) - microscopy, culture, sensitivity
For completely sterile urine sample, use supra-pubic aspiration

11

Infected urine can cause (£)

Cystitis
Renal infection (urinary reflux)
Prostate infection

12

UTI symptoms include (5)

Dysuria
Urine frequency
Cloudy urine
Offensive smelling urine
Supra-pubic pain

13

UTI treatment involves (3)

Increase fluid intake
Frequent micturition
Occasionally antibiotics

14

Antibiotic treatment of UTI (2)

Trimethoprim (gold standard)
Amoxicillin

15

UT obstructions include (4)

Renal calculi
Prostatic disease
UT strictures
External compression

16

Urinary outflow obstruction symptoms include (6)

Slow stream
Hesitancy
Frequency
Urgency
Nocturia
Incomplete voiding

17

Types of prostate diseases include (3)

Prostatitis (prostate inflammation)
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Prostatic cancer (adenocarcinoma)

18

Definition of benign prostatic hypertrophy

Hyperplasia of the prostate

19

How common is benign prostatic hypertrophy

80% in men over 80yrs

20

Treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (2)

Drug-based (a-adrenergic blocking drugs)
Surgery

21

Surgical treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy involves (2)

TURP - transurethral prostatectomy (remove part of prostate that is compressing urethra)
Open prostatectomy

22

Prostatic malignancy is how common (2)

90% of men > 90yrs
10% have symptomatic disease

23

What is PSA and when is it used (@)

Prostatic specific antigen
Useful for monitoring disease activity in those known to have the disease

24

Prostatic malignancy treatment involves (3)

Surgery (radical prostatectomy)
Radiotherapy
Hormone tgeratment (anti-adreogens, LHRH analogues)

25

Proastatic malignancy will metastasise

Skeletal system (bone), resulting in osteoporosis

26

Renal canaliculi are (2)

Stones in kidney/bladder
In 5% of population

27

Renal canaliculi treatment involves

Lithotripsy (ultrasonic sound energy)