3 - Speech Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3 - Speech Perception Deck (20):
1

Frequency

Number of wavelengths pass by point in time. Measured in Hz
Heard as pitch

2

Amplitude

Amount of change wave undergoes in one cycle
Heard as loudness

3

Fundamental frequency

Lowest frequency produced by a vibrating object
Half length, third length make overtones
Combination heard as timbre

4

Cochlea

Has basilar membrane covered with hair cells
Tonotopic organization from 20k - 20 Hz

5

Primary auditory cortex

Known as A1, superior temporal lobe that does initial processing of the input from the cochlea

6

Spectrogram

Chart displaying the pattern of frequencies in the speech stream and how those patterns change over time

7

Prosody

Fluctuations in the fundamental frequency during an utterance

8

Formant

Bands of high amplitude sound at certain frequencies above the fundamental frequency

9

Sonorant

Serves as a consonant but sometimes a vowel (m, l, etc)

10

Formant transition

Modification of a formant due to proceeding or following consonant provides cues for distinguishing consonants
Formant transition is chirp

11

Fricative

Consonant produced by constricting the air stream to create friction (f, sh, s)

12

Plosives

Consonant that momentarily blocks then releases the airstream (b and p, d and t, g and k)

13

Aspiration

Puff of air accompanying plosives

14

Voice onset time

Time between release of plosives consonant and beginning of vocal fold vibration
Distinguishes between bah and pah

15

Phonemic restoration

Filling in missing segments of the speech stream with contextually appropriate material

16

McGurk effect

Artificially induced illusion in which auditory information for a speech sound is combined with visual info for a second, combination makes a third

17

Prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis

Infants use intonation and stress patterns to infer phrase and word boundaries

18

Metrical segmentation strategy

Segmenting speech stream by assuming English words begin on a stressed syllable

19

Motor theory

People perceive speech by inferring the movements of the vocal tract that produced those sounds

20

Direct realism

New form of motor theory, have direct awareness of the world because the density input is sufficiently rich for us to completely recover the object of perception