220.127.116.11 The Carbon Cycle Flashcards
what are the gaseous carbon compounds?
CO2 and methane (CH4)
what are the liquid carbon compounds?
carbonic acid, calcium bicarbonate
what is the solid carbon compound?
how is carbon stored in the atmosphere?
as co2 - 0.04% of the atmosphere or 400parts per million
where is carbon found in the biosphere?
living vegetation, soil humus, peat, animals
where is carbon found in the cryosphere?
in permafrost - e.g. canada
where is carbon found in the lithosphere?
sedimentary rocks like limestone and chalk
fossil fuels / gas / oil
where is carbon found in the hydrosphere?
dissolved CO2 in water and sea floor sediments
rank largest to smallest magnitude of stores of carbon
lithosphere - sedimentary rocks hydrosphere - oceans cryosphere - permafrost biosphere - living biomass atmosphere
what are the transfer processes in the carbon cycle?
photosynthesis repiration decomposition combustion carbon sequestration weathering
outline the process of photosynthesis
plants use sunlight energy to produce glucose by converting CO2 into carbohydrates and oxygen is released back to the air
outline the process of respiration
all living things use glucose and energy to carry out life functions through the process of respiration
CO2 and water are returned to the atmosphere
approx 50% of all carbon absorbed by photosynthesis is released by respiration
outline the process of decomposition
when decomposers break up organic material
carbon is returned to the atmosphere as CO2 or methane
or passed into the soil as humus where it is used for plant growth
outline the process of combustion
when organic material is burnt in the presence of oxygen and is converted into CO2, energy and water.
during this process carbon transfers from th bio/lithosphere to the atmosphere
outline the process of carbon sequestration
long term transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to plants, soils, rocks and oceans
outline the process of weathering
sedimentary rocks are broken down over time
when co2 is absorbed by water it forms carbonic acid which causes rocks to slowly dissolve. is eventually washed away into the oceans where it is used by marine life to build shells
transfers carbon from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere
give examples of the fast carbon cycle when processes cause rapid change
photosynthesis - gaseous exchange between the ocean and atmosphere
wild fires - can transfer carbon rapidly from the biosphere to the atmosphere in huge amounts