3.18 STROM STRUCTURE OR BLOOD CELLS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.18 STROM STRUCTURE OR BLOOD CELLS Deck (18):
1

EDTA

-Added to blood samples to prevent clotting
-"takes out Ca"
-kelating agent

2

STAIN USE TO LOOK AT BLOOD CELLS UNDER MICROSCOPE

WRIGHT-GIEMSA STAIN
-CONTAINS: EOSIN (AROMATIC/ACIDIC) AND METHYLENE BLUE (AROMATIC/BASIC)
-DRY CELLS TO INCREASE ENTRANCE INTO CELLS

3

EOSIN

-AROMATIC/ACIDIC (neg. charge)
-SOLUBLE IN ETHANOL/NOT WATER
-STAINS HYDROPHOBIC BASIC MACROMOLECULES (Hgb)
-binds best to eosinophils

4

METHYLENE BLUE

-AROMATIC/BASIC (Pos. Charge)
-SOLUBLE IN WATER AND METHANOL
-STAINS HYDROPHOBIC ACIDIC MACROMOLECULES (nucleic acids** and others)
-STAINS BASOPHILS THE BEST

5

RBC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

-FLEXIBLE SHAPE (BIOCONCAVE DISC)
-DURABLE MEMBRANE (CABLE: SPECTRIN BOUND TO ANKYRIN BOUND TO BAND 3)
-MAX Hgb/O2 CARRYING CAPACITY (ELIM SOME ORGANELLES)
-OFFSET OSMOTIC PRESSURE (NA/K ATPase- 3 NA OUT AND 2 K IN)
-ANTI-OXIDANT SYSTEM (GSH, NADPH, G6PD)
-ENERGY SUPPLY (ANAEROBIC)
-ABILITY TO TUNE DOWN COMPLEMENT FIXATION (DAF, CD55)

6

ANTI-OXIDANT SYSTEM

-GLUTATHIONE IS USED TO REDUCE REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES WITH FREE SH
-GSH IS THEN REDUCED WITH NADPH (PENTOSE PHOSPHATE SHUNT)
-DEFECTS CAN LEAD TO Fe+++ that can not carry O2 (methemoglobin)

7

NORMOCHROMIC

ANEMIA WITH NORMAL [Hgb] IN RBC BUT INSUFFICIENT # OF RBC

8

HYPOCHROMIA

LACK OF COLOR IN RBC B/C OF LACK OF Hgb AND LACK OF BINDING BY EOSIN
-NORMALLY ABOUT 1/3 OF CENTER IS PALE BUT CELL HAS A LARGER CENTRAL PALE AREAN THAN USUAL

9

ANISOCYTOSIS

ABNORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF RBC SIZE USUALLY Fe deficiency related

10

POIKILOCYTOSIS

ABNORMAL RBC SHAPE USUALLY Fe deficiency related

11

POLYCHROMASIA

RBC W/ EXCESS RESIDUAL RNA SHOW BLUISH TINGE
-USAUALLY MEAN PT IS MAKING A LOT OF RBC (GOOD) B/C THEY ARE SOMEHOW RAPIDLY LOSING THEM (BAD)
-NEWLY FORMED RBC HAVE MORE RNA THAN OLDER ONES (TAKE UP METH BLUE/BASIC STAIN)

12

BITE CELLS

CAUSED BY DEFECT IN ANTI-OX, CHUNK OF RBC WITH OX Hgb IS REMOVED BUT THE RBC RETAINS OVERALL SHAPE WITH BITE TAKEN OUT
-G6PD: MOST COMMON DEF YOU WILL SEE WITH THIS

13

SCHISTOCYTES

RESULTS FROM RBC THAT HAS BEEN SLICED IN HALF (HIT CAN CAUSE)
-LOOK LIKE ARMY HELMET
-IMPORTANT TO DIFF FROM BITE CELLS

14

HEMATOCRIT

A/B
A: ERYTHROCYTES
B: BLOOD VOLUME
% OF BLOOD VOLUME OCCUPIED BY RBC EASY WAY TO TELL IF ANEMIC SAME INFO AS Hgb # (newer)

15

COULTER CHAMBER WITH A/C CURRENT

-RBC COUNT AND VOLUME
-PEAK # = COUNT
-PEAK HEIGHT = VOLUME
-INCLUDES LEUKOCYTES BUT MINIMAL AND DO NOT WORRY ABOUT

16

COULTER CHAMBER WITH D/C CURRENT

COUNT VS COMPLEXITY (WHATS INSIDE)
-CAN LYSE RBC AND GET LEUKOCYTE COUNT: NEUTROPHILS, MONOCYTES, EOSINOPHILS AND LYMPHOCYTES
-SAME RESULTS WITH LYSIS OF RBC AND PUTTING THROUGH FLOW CYTOMETER

17

WHAT ANALYZER DOES NOT COUNT
KNOW!!!!!!!!!!!!

-BANDS: IMMATURE NEUTROPHILS
-BLASTS: MAY BE COUNTED AS LYMPHOCYTES (COULD BE LEUKEMIA)
-RBC FRAGMENTS: MAY NO BE DETECTED OR COUNTED AS PLATELETS
-PLATELET CLUMPS: CAN RESULT IN ARTIFACTUAL THROMBOCYTOPENIA
-GET A PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR AND MANUAL ANALYSIS IF SUSPECT SOMETHING ELSE GOING ON

18

THINGS ANALYZER WILL COUNT

Hgb, RBC #/VOLUME, RDW, PLATELET #/VOLUME