32. Homeostasis and Endocrine Signaling Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 32. Homeostasis and Endocrine Signaling Deck (20):
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anatomy

structure of an organism

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physiology

processes and functions of an organism

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epithelial tissue

sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities as well as external surfaces; also called epithelium

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nervous tissue

tissue made up of neurons and supportive cells

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neuron

a nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its plasma membrane

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glia (glial cells)

cells of the nervous system that support, regulate, and augment the functions of neurons

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muscle tissue

tissue consisting of long muscle cells that can contract, either on its own or when stimulated by nerve impulses

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skeletal muscle

a type of striated muscle that is generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body

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smooth muscle

a type of muscle lacking the striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle because of the uniform distribution of myosin filaments in the cells; responsible for involuntary body activities

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cardiac muscle

type of striated muscle that forms the contractile wall of the heart. Its cells are joined by intercalated disks that relay the electrical signals underlying each heartbeat

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connective tissue

animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix

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macrophage

a phagocytic cell present in many tissues that functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen-presenting cell.

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regulator

animal for which mechanisms of homeostasis moderate internal changes in a particular variable in the face of external fluctuation of that variable

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conformer

animal for which an internal condition conforms to (changes in accordance with) changes in an environmental variable

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interstitial fluid

fluid filling the spaces between cells in most animals

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homeostasis

steady-state physiological condition of the body

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set point

in homeostasis in animals, a value maintained for a particular variable, such as body temperature or solute concentration

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stimulus

in feedback regulation, a fluctuation in a variable that triggers a response

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sensor

in homeostasis, a receptor that detects a stimulus

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response

(1) In cellular communication, the change in a specific cellular activity brought about by a transduced signal from outside the cell. (2) In feedback regulation, a physiological activity triggered by a change in a variable.