3.2 The police state Flashcards
What does a police state mean?
Means the Nazi government used the police/secret police to control what people did and said
People who said anything against the government were punished
What happened to the SS during the 1930s?
Expanded to 240,000
Put in charge of all other police and security services
Leader (Heinrich Himmler) didn’t believe they were obliged to act within the law
What did Himmler expect SS members to be like?
Wanted examples of perfect German manhood
Expected to marry racially pure wives to create racially pure Germans for the future
When was the SD (Security Force) formed and by whom?
1931 by Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS
Made Reinhard Heydrich leader
What information did the SD keep?
Card index with details of everyone suspected of opposing Nazis or German government at home or abroad
What were the Gestapo?
Non-uniformed secret police force
Set up by Goering
What was the main aim of the Gestapo?
Identify people who criticised/opposed Nazis
Spied, tapped phones, and used network of informants
Given permission to use torture when questioning/gaining confessions
How many people were arrested for political offences in 1939?
What was the main weapon of the Gestapo?
Germans couldn’t distinguish them from normal people
Offenders could be imprisoned without trial
Many were sent to conc. camps which increased fear even more
Made them more powerful than police force
How many Gestapo members were there?
30,000 for a population of 80 million, fewr than 50 in Hamburg
Why were concentration camps set up?
By 1939, 150,000 people ‘under protective arrest’ (in prison for doing things Nazis didn’t agree with
Prisons created run by SA and SS to cope with influx of prisoners
When was the first concentration camp set up?
1933 in Dachau
What were inmates of concentration camps like?
‘undesirables’ e.g. prostitutes, homosexuals
minority groups e.g. Jews
political prisoners e.g. intellectuals, communists
.How did Hitler control judges?
Set up Nazi League for Maintenance of the Law
All judges had to be members - any judges the Nazis didn’t like denied membership
Nazis instructed that in matters between Nazis and law, Nazi interests more important
What did Hitler do to trial by jury?
Judges decided innocence/guilt and punishments