Intro/Pharmacodynamics Flashcards Preview

Term III: Pharmacology > Intro/Pharmacodynamics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro/Pharmacodynamics Deck (28)
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1
Q

Name the percentages and volumes of the following compartments (in males):

  1. Total body water
  2. ICF
  3. ECF (including interstitium and plasma)
A
  1. 60% or 42 L
  2. 40% or 28 L
  3. ECF: 20% or 14 L
    Interstitium - 10 L
    Plasma - 5% or 3-4 L
2
Q

Do females have more or less total water than males?

A

Less - 55% compared to males who have 60%

3
Q

Name the AA derivatives of the following:

Dopamine, NE, Epi
Serotonin
Histamine
NO

A

Tyrosine
Tryptophan
Histidine
Arginine

4
Q

What type of drug is more likely to enter CNS: ionized or lipid soluble?

A

Lipid soluble

5
Q

Name the general drug targets in order of fastest to slowest action.

A

Ion channels –> GPCRs –> enzyme-linked receptors –> DNA-linked receptors

6
Q

***statin

A

HmG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lowers cholesterol, Ex: Lovastatin

7
Q

***pril

A

ACE inhibitor, lowers BP, Ex: Captopril

8
Q

***navir

A

HIV protease inhibitor, Ex: Inhinavir

9
Q

***sartan

A

Angiotensin II receptor blocker, lowers BP, Ex: Losartan

10
Q

***mab

A

Monoclonal antibody

11
Q

***afil

A

PDE-5 inhibitor, treats erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, Ex: Sildenafil (Viagra)

12
Q

***oxin

A

Cardiac glycoside, Ex: Digoxin

13
Q

***tidine

A

H2 receptor blocker, reduces stomach acid, Ex: Cimetidine

14
Q

***cillin

A

Inhibits cell wall synthesis, antibiotic, Ex: Penicillin

15
Q

***cycline

A

Protein synthesis inhibitor, antibiotic, Ex: Tetracycline

16
Q

What type of drug is capable of producing a maximal effect in the cell or system? What form of R does it bind to?

A

Full agonist

R’ only - active form

17
Q

What type of drug produces the effect, but not maximally? What form of R does it bind to?

A

Partial agonist

BOTH R and R’

18
Q

If you increase the concentration of competitive antagonist, what happens to Emax and EC50?

A

Emax stays the same

EC50 increases

19
Q

If you increase concentration of non-competitive antagonist, what happens to Emax and EC50?

A

Emax decreases

EC50 stays the same

20
Q

Which type of drug has an effect alone? Antagonist or inverse agonist?

A

Inverse agonist

21
Q

What form of the receptor do inverse agonists bind to? What effect do they have on activity?

A

R - inactive form

Decrease activity

22
Q

What type of drug can block the effect of an inverse agonist?

A

Antagonist

23
Q

True or False. If any receptors are completely knocked out, it is impossible to get the full effect of the drug.

A

False - spare receptors exist.

24
Q

What term describes the EC50 doses needed to achieve an effect? Would most potent drugs have highest or lowest EC50 value?

A

Potency - lowest value

25
Q

What term describes the maximal response of drugs? Would most efficacious drugs have highest or lowest Emax values?

A

Efficacy - highest values

26
Q

What type of drug is Benadryl/Diphenhydramine?

A

Inverse agonist

27
Q

How do you calculate therapeutic index? What’s more dangerous high index or low?

A

LD50/ED50

Low

28
Q

Name 5 drugs with low therapeutic index and what they treat.

A
Theophylin - asthma
Quinine - anti-arrhythmic
Lithium - bipolar
Digoxin - cardiac
Warfarin - anticoagulant