Define Oxygen Off Loading
The dissociation of Oxygen from Hemoglobin and the subsequent take up of the freely dissolved oxygen in the tissue
How is Oxygen offloading effected by Exercise
Oxygen offloading will occur at a higher pressure of Oxygen in the blood. This will allow for adequate oxygen delivery during exercise.
How does Oxygen offloading affect CO2, Temperature, and Protons during exercise
There is an increase in CO2, Temperature, and Protons
What is O2 carrying capacity
Maximal Oxygen that can be carried by a particular amount of Hb
What is Hypoxia
Blanket term for low Oxygen at the tissue level
How will a low cardiac output affect Oxygen
it will cause hypoxia
What is hypoxemia?
Low Saturation of Oxygen due to a Low Arterial pressure of oxygen
Can be caused by V/Q mismatch, shunt, diffusion problems
How does Carbon Monoxide effect Oxygen Delivery
CO has a much higher affinity to bind to Hb thus causing hypoxia
What are the two main modes of Carbon Dioxide Carriage
Freely Dissolved = 1.2mM HCO3 = 24mM (Many more) Carboamino compounds (Hb) = 1.2mM
What is henderson hasselbach equation
Normal pH= 6.1+log(24mM/(.03*40Torr)) = 7.4 pH in body
Define Respiratory Acidosis
Low pH due to high blood CO2
When does Respiratory Acidosis occur
During low alveolar ventilation (obstructive disease, drug overdose)
How do you compensate for respiratory acidosis
The renal system will have a higher level of HCO3 reabsorbed = Increase in activity of transporters to give more bicarbonate to buffer the increased level of hydrogen ions.
Slow 1-3 Days
Define Respiratory Alkalosis
High pH due to low blood CO2
What does respiratory alkalosis occur?
During high ventilation (high altitude)
How do you compensate for respiratory alkalosis
The renal system will have less HCO3 reabsorbed
What drug can be taken when traveling to high altitude?
Diamox is a drug taken when going to high altitude.
Start taking it a few days before going.
Blocks the activity of the bicarbonate transporter lowering their levels. Drop in CO2 and Drop in protons to help pH
Define Metabolic Acidosis
Low pH due to non-CO2 acid (problem not caused by the lung)
What does metabolic acidosis occur?
High ketoacids, lactic acid, diarrhea (loss of HCO3
How do you compensate for metabolic acidosis
A very fast response
Define Metabolic Alkalosis
High pH due to non-CO2 Acid
What does metabolic alkalosis occur?
Vomiting, Antacid ingestion
What is the compensation for metabolic alkalosis
Low ventilation: It is fast but not complete
May not completely compensate because it will lower your oxygen levels. Sensors in body will let you know when there isn’t enough oxygen and will kick in