Flashcards in 4. African Americans and immigrants during the 20s Deck (16):
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural, social and economic explosion which took place in Harlem, drawing black writers, musicians and artists in. Here, they were able to escape the oppressive caste system of the south and freely express their talents
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
- What was significant about 136th street - give examples
- What did Jazz come to represent? Give an example of an influential African American musician
- Give an example of am influential African American film maker - explain why
- Give a few examples of influential African American writers or poets
- 136th street was a resident home for migrants, and many famous people spent time there, eg Langston Hughes
- Jazz came to represent freedom of expression, for example Duke Ellington, who even played at New Yorks Cotton Club
- Oscar Micheaux was an influential African American film maker, who used his pedestal to challenge racial stereotypes and social norms, as well as unspoken truths about black lives, eg white men raping black women
- Important writers included Alain Locke, Langston Hughes, F. Scott Fitzgerald
Give an example of an important black newspaper
What did it encourage?
THE CHICAGO DEFENDER
It encouraged blacks to go to the North - 'the land of the free'
- What did he stand for?
- What association did he start?
- What was the newspaper called that he published, and what did it promote?
- Why did African Americans praise him so highly, and what did he famously say?
- How did W.E.B DuBois describe him?
- What about the KKK?
- Garvey was an ardent black nationalist, who advocated self help and black unity
- He founded UNIA - Universal Negro Improvement Association
- In Harlem he published THE NEGRO WORLD - a successful weekly newspaper which promoted Garveys nationalist ideals and encouraged blacks to go back to Africa
- Garvey was idolised by millions for praising the greatness of the blacks, and famously said 'up, you mighty race'
- W.E.B DuBois described Garvey as 'dictatorial, domineering, inordinately vain and very suspicious'
- Garvey invited the KKK to share his platform in order to communicate that whites have pride in their race, and so should blacks
THE TULSA RIOT of _______
- A riot was triggered when ______________
- One of the newspapers suggested that ________ and soon, conflict arose and some whites were killed. The news spread, and mob violence exploded. Thousands of whites rampaged the city, _____________
- Some policemen were rumoured to ___________ and a plane __________
- The national guard arrested ________ and anywhere between ___and___ blacks died
- _____ were burnt to the ground
- The city of Tulsa _______
THE TULSA RIOT of 1921
- A riot was triggered when two white newspapers published reports on a black boy who raped a white girl
- One of the newspapers suggested that the boy should be hung, and soon, conflict arose and some whites were killed. The news spread, and mob violence exploded. Thousands of whites rampaged the city, killing men, women and children and burning buildings
- Some policemen were rumoured to have joined in, and a plane dropped sticks of dynamite
- The national guard arrested blacks rather then whites, and anywhere between 25 and 300 blacks died
- 35 blocks of Greenwood were burnt to the ground
- The city did not support those who had lost their homes
MOORE VS DEMPSEY
1. The case involved __________ tried for _______during the _________
2. The _________ jury debated the case of each defendant for less then __ minuets each, and the verdict was that ________
3. ________ of the NAACP researched the case, published his findings and used white and black lawyers to appeal, for example __________
4. Eventually, ______
MOORE VS DEMPSEY 1923
1. The case involved 12 black farmers, tried for the murder of 5 white men during the Arkansas riot of 1919
2. The ALL-WHITE jury debated the case of each defendant for less then 8 minuets each, and the men were found guilty and sentenced to death
3. WALTER WHITE of the NAACP researched the case, published his findings and used white and black lawyers to appeal, for example SCIPIO AFRICANUS JONES
4. Eventually, all 12 men were freed
THE MONKEY TRIAL
1. What was the name of the defendant and what was he accused of?
2. Who was he up against?
3. Who won the case? However...?
4. What year was the verdict overturned? However...?
THE MONKEY TRIAL 1925
1. JOHN THOMAS SCOPES was accused of teaching the theory of evolution, in violation of Tennessee state laws
2. He was up against William Jennings Bryan - 3 time democratic candidate and fundamentalist hero
3. Scopes won the case, but his fundamentalist views were public ally mocked
4. In 1927, the verdict was over turned on a technicality, but the constitutional issues were left unresolved
In what years were the following acts passed, and what did they do?
- Literacy act
- Immigration quota act
- National origins act
- Japanese and Eastern European act
- 1917 Literacy Act - stopped the immigration of Eastern Europeans
- 1921 Immigration Quota Act - imposed numerical limits - only 3% of the population
- 1924 National Origins Act - brought this figure down to 2%
- 1930 Japanese and Eastern Europeans - these immigrants stopped from entering the US
SACCO AND VENZETTI CASE
1. Who were Sacco and Venzetti and what were they accused of?
2. What was the outcome of the case?
3. How did the public respond - give examples
4. What did the case demonstrate?
1. Sacco and Venzetti were Italian born anarchists, who were seen as political radicals. They were accused of killing 2 men during the armed robbery of Slater and Morill shoe company
2. They were convicted unfairly on little evidence, and sentenced to death in April 1927
3. There was public outcry. Celebrated writers, artists and academics, as well as Harvard Law professor Felix Frankfurter, argued his innocence
4. The case epitomised unfair treatment of immigrants in America
Why did the KKK revive?
(Give 4 reasons)
1. The release of 'BIRTH OF A NATION' in 1915 reinforced ideas of white supremacy
2. In reaction to new kinds of immigration
3. Southern whites resented the arming of black Americans during WW1
4. Population in towns and cities grew, so the klan became more popular
Who formed the new klan, and where?
By 1930, how many members did the klan claim to have?
The new klan was formed by WILLIAM SIMMONS in Atlanta
By 1930, the klan claimed to have 5 million members
What did sanders believe about what the war meant for African Americans?
He said hay the First World War generate jobs, and suggested that it brought only a glimpse of greater equality
Their goal remained fleeting and elusive
1. What triggered the riot?
2. How many died, and how many were injured?
3. What was the outcome of the riots, and were they blamed on?
1. The riot was caused when a 15 year old black boy accidentally crossed the dividing line on a segregated beach and was stoned by whites. When blacks protested, they were arrested
2. In the riots that followed, 38 died and 500 were injured
3. The governor of Illinois commissioned a report, which called for desegregation and blamed the riots in unfair treatment of blacks by white law enforcers, and ghetto living conditions
What newspapers and organisations helped to create an increasing sense of community?
Newspapers like the Baltimore African American
And fraternal organisations, civic clubs and churches like The Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem
1. What were situations like in the south?
2. Had the National Urban a league been successful?
3. Were workers unionised?
4. What was the attitudes of blacks like and why?
5. What about blacks in the north?
1. In the south, Jim Crow remained firmly in tact
2. The National Urban League had done little to solve urban poverty in the North
3. Despite Randolph's encouragement, most blacks were not unionised
4. Many blacks seemed apathetic. Some followed Booker T Washington's accomodationist ideals, whilst others joined NAACP, but many remained aloof to the reform movements, perhaps due to a lack of political awareness, or fear of opposition white supremacy
5. African Americans in the north were in a far better position - they could vote and improve economic standings, but still faced harassment