4 Dysmorphology and Teratogens Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4 Dysmorphology and Teratogens Deck (17):
1

what is a malformation?

poor formation of tissue
-intrinsically abnormal developmental process
-likely to be genetic

2

what is a deformation?

unusual force on normally maturing tissue
-club foot, overlapping toes, torticollis

3

what is a disruption?

breakdown of normal tissue (could get an umbilical cord wrap)

4

what is a dysplasia?

abnormal organization of cells in tissue

5

what is a syndrome?

multiple anomalies thought to be pathogenically related

6

what is a sequence?

a casacade of effect from a single known anomaly or mechanical factor

7

what is a field defect

derived from the disturbance of a single developmental field which then affects the fields around it

8

what is association

the non-random occurrence of multiple anomalies that can not be explained by chance

9

what are multiple congenital anomalies?

two or more structural primary defects in 2 or more body areas / embryologically different areas

10

what is the difference betweem a syndrome, sequence, and association?

syndrome: genetic factors
sequence: mechanical
association: unknown

11

what is the piere robin sequence?

micrognathia, glossoptosis, cleft -palate

12

what is the potter sequence?

lack of fetal urine, anhydromnios, fetal compression, pulmonary hypoplasia, death

13

OEIS and holoprocencephaly are examples of what?

field defect

14

what is vacterl?

-vertebral anomalies, anal atresio, cardiovascular, tracheoesophogeal fistula, esohpogeal atresia, renal, limb
-An Assoiation disorder (unknown cause)

15

in the first semester, wht affect do teratogens typically have?

malformations?

16

in the 2nd and 3rd trimester, what affect do teratogens have?

cognitive

17

what does acutane cause?

-teratogen
-heart defects, cranial nerve palsies, absence of cerebral vermis