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Flashcards in 4.1 Deck (61)
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1

hydrocarbon

compound made of only hydrogen and carbon

2

general formula

simplest algebraic formula e.g. C(n)H(2n+2)

3

displayed formula

shows all bonds in compound

4

skeletal formula

shows the carton changes as a line and doesn't show the hydrogens e.g.. /\/\/\/

5

structural formula

shows the structure split in to each carbon and the groups off it e.g. ch3ch2ch2ch3- butane if there is a group/atom off a carbon it is shown in brackets after the ch part

6

alkenes

have a c=c double bond general formula CnH2n- unsaturated

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alkanes

only single bonds between carbons general formula CnH2n+2 - saturated

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Homologous series

a series of organic compounds that have the same functional group and each member differs from the next by CH2.

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characteristics of a homologous series

all share the same functional group, same functional groups, similar chemical properties, show a gradual change in physical properties as molar mass increases, can usually be prepared by similar methods

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prefixes by number of carbons

1-meth, 2-eth, 3-prop, 4-but, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hept, 8-oct, 9-non, 10-dec

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alkane suffix

-ane

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branch suffix

-yl

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cycloalkanes prefix+suffix

cycle-ane

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alchohol suffix

-ol

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aldehydes suffix

-al

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keytones suffix

-one

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carboxylic acids suffix

-oic acid

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esters suffix

alkyl -oate

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rules for naming compounds

1) count carbons in longest chain
2)number carbons so that carbon 1 is closest to the functional group
3)any side chain or functional group numbered and given prefix

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functional group of alkenes

c=c

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haloalkanes functional group

-x where x=F,Cl,Br,I

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aldehyde functional group

-CHO

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alkane functional group

c-c

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keytone functional group

C-CO-C

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carboxylic acid functional group

COOH

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alcohol functional group

-OH

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aromatic compounds

contain at least one benzene ring

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aliphatic compounds

dont contain a benzene ring - carbon atoms joined together as straight of branched chains

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alicyclic compounds

subgroup of aliphatic compounds where carbon atoms are joined in a ring structure

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structural isomer

they have the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements