# Discovering Statistics; Chapter 1 Flashcards

1
Q

When are qualitative methods of research used?

A

When the experimenter needs to analyse language.

2
Q

Briefly outline the research process.

A

Research question -> generate theory -> generate hypothesis (identify variables) -> collect data to test theory (measure variables) -> analyse data (graph data and fit a model)

3
Q

What are variables?

A

The ‘things’ in an experiment that change or don’t change which are measured by the experimenter.

4
Q

What is a theory?

A

An idea or explanation based on observations in a natural setting.

5
Q

What is a hypothesis?

A

A prediction from a theory.

6
Q

What is falsification?

A

Act of disproving a hypothesis/theory.

7
Q

What is the independent variable?

A

A variable where the value is not dependant on other variables.

8
Q

What is the dependant variable?

A

The variable where the value depends upon the manipulation of the experiment.

9
Q

What is the predictor variable?

A

A variable though to predict an outcome.

10
Q

What is the outcome variable?

A

It is a variable which is thought to change as a function of changes in the predictor variables.

11
Q

What are categorical variables?

A

Categorical variables are entities divided into distinct categories.

12
Q

What are continuous variables?

A

Where entities get a distinct score.

13
Q

What is measurement error?

A

The discrepancy between the numbers used to represent what we’re measuring and the actual value of what we’re measuring.

14
Q

What is validity?

A

The extent to which the measuring instrument measures what it intends to measure.

Depends on reliability.

15
Q

What is reliability?

A

The extent to which the measuring instrument finds the same results in repetition.

16
Q

What is correlational/cross-sectional research?

A

Where research a observe what naturally occurs without interference.

17
Q

What is longditudinal research?

A

Repeatedly measuring the same people over a long period of time.

18
Q

What is ecological validity?

A

How a studies results can be generalised to the public.

19
Q

What is tertium quid?

A

A third person or thing interfering with the observation.

20
Q

What are confounding (or extraneous) variables?

A

Variables from the real world which can influence results (such as time of day)

21
Q

When are quantitative methods of research used?

A

When numbers are involved in the data.

22
Q

What are between group/independent measures experiments?

A

Different groups do every condition.

23
Q

What are within subject/repeated measures experiments?

A

One group does all experimental conditions.

24
Q

What is systematic variation?

A

The variation that occurs due to the experimenter doing something in one condition, but not the other.

25
Q

What is unsystematic variation?

A

The variation that results from random factors that exist between experimental conditions (eg. time of day). We aim to keep this variation as small as possible through randomization.

26
Q

What are practice effects?

A

Performing differently in the second condition due to familiarity. It is overcome with counterbalancing (AB/BA).

27
Q

What are boredom effects?

A

Performing differently in the second condition due to boredom/tiredness.

28
Q

What is a normal distribution of the data?

A

Data displayed as a bell-shape curve on the graph.

29
Q

What is a positive skew?

A

Frequent scores gathered to the left of the graph.

30
Q

What is a negative skew?

A

Frequent scores gathered to the right of the graph.

31
Q

What is kurtosis?

A

The ‘pointyness’ of the curve.

32
Q

What is leptokurtis?

A

Otherwise known as positive kurtosis; a tall curve.

33
Q

What is platykurtis?

A

Otherwise known as negative kurtosis; a flat curve.

34
Q

What is the central tendency?

A

The value calculated to assess where the centre of frequency distributions lie.

35
Q

What is the mode?

A

The score that occurs the most frequently.

36
Q

What is bimodality?

A

A set of scores that has two scores which are equally as frequent as each other.

37
Q

What is multimodality?

A

A set of scores that has three or more scores which are equally as frequent as each other.

38
Q

What is the median?

A

The middle score.

39
Q

What is the mean?

A

A measure of central tendency. Calculated by the sum of scores being divided by the total number of scores.

40
Q

What is the range?

A

The largest score - the smallest score.

41
Q

What is the interquartile range?

A

Range of the middle 50% of scores (upper quartile - lower quartile).

42
Q

What is the lower quartile?

A

The median of the bottom 50% of scores.

43
Q

What is the upper quartile?

A

The median of the top 50% of scores.

44
Q

What is the deviance?

A

The difference between the raw score and the value of the mean.

45
Q

What is the equation for a z-score?

A

(score - mean) / standard deviation.