# Discovering Statistics; Chapter 5 Flashcards

1
Q

Under what contexts does bias need to be considered?

A

1) Things that bias parameter estimates (including effect sizes)
2) Things that bias standard error and confidence intervals
3) Things that bias test statistics and p-values.

2
Q

Most potential sources of bias occur when what assumptions are violated?

A

2) Normality of something or other
3) Homogeneity of variance
4) Independence.

3
Q

Are parameter estimates affected by having a non-normal distribution?

A

Yes.

4
Q

Is the accuracy of confidence interval influenced by having a non-normal distribution?

A

Yes, the accuracy decreases is there is not a normal distribution.

5
Q

What is another term for homogeneity of variance?

A

Homoscedasticity.

6
Q

What is another term for heterogeneity of variance?

A

Heteroscedasticity.

7
Q

How does Levene’s test indicate homogeneity of variance?

A

If Levene’s is significant, assumption of homogeneity of variance has been violated.

8
Q

What is transforming the data?

A

A shift in the data to display a normal distribution.