4.4 Digestive System - Break It Down Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 > 4.4 Digestive System - Break It Down > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.4 Digestive System - Break It Down Deck (23):
1

Digestion

Breakdown of food into a form that can be used by an animal. It includes both mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

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Mechanical digestion

Digestion that uses physical factors such as chewing with the teeth

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Chemical digestion

The chemical reactions changing food into simpler substances that are absorbed into the bloodstream for use in other parts of the body

4

Alimentary canal

Passage from the mouth to the anus. Digestion of food occurs as it moves through the canal.

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Enzymes

Special chemicals that speed up reactions but are themselves not used up in the reaction

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Saliva

Watery substance in the mouth that moistens food before swallowing

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Salivary glands

Glands in the mouth that produce saliva

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Bolus

Round, chewed-up ball of food made in the mouth that makes swallowing easier

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Oesophagus

part of the digestive system composed of a tube connecting the mouth with the stomach

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Peristalsis

The process of pushing food along the oesophagus or small intestine by the action of muscles

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Small intestine

The part of the digestive system between the stomach and large intestine, where much of the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients takes place

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Nutrients

Substances that provide energy and chemicals that living things need to stay alive, grow and reproduce

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Gall bladder

A small organ that stores and concentrates bile within the body

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Lipases

Enzymes that breaks down fats and oils

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Pancreas

A large gland in the body that produces and secretes the hormone insulin and an important digestive fluid containing enzymes

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Porteases

enzymes that break proteins down into amino acids

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Large intestine

the penultimate part of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from the waste before it is transported out of the body

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Cellulose

a natural substance that keeps the cell wall of plants rigid

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Rectum

the final section of the digestive system, where waste food matter is stored as faeces before being excreted through the anus

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Emulsify

combine two liquids that do not normally mix easily

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Denatured

describes the condition of proteins after they have been overheated

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Substrate

substance acted upon by an enzyme

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Product

Pew chemical substance that results from a chemical reaction