# Discovering Statistics; Chapter 8 Flashcards

1
Q

What is ordinary least squares (OLS)?

A

Parameters that are estimated by calculated the value that has the minimum sum of squared error.

2
Q

What is the standardized residual?

A

unstandardized residual / SD.

3
Q

What is the adjusted predictor value?

A

New predictor value when outliers are excluded.

4
Q

What is leverage?

A

Found in ‘residual statistics output’. The influence of observed value of the outcome variable over predicted value;

k + 1 / n

k = no. predictors.

5
Q

What is Mahalonobis distances?

A

Distance of cases from the mean(s) to the predictor variable(s).

6
Q

What is the DFBeta?

A

Difference between an estimated parameter; uses all cases and same parameter once influential case has been removed.

7
Q

What is the DFFit?

A

Difference between predicted value for a case when the model is calculated including and excluding a specific case.

8
Q

What is covariance ratio (CVR)?

A

A measure of whether a case influences the variance of the regression parameters.

9
Q

What is Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)?

A

Fit which penalizes the model for having more variables (big AIC = bad fit).

10
Q

Where can you find the individual contribution of variables to the regression model in SPSS?

A

In the coefficients table in the output from SPSS. The ‘sig.’ column tells us whether the variable maks a significant contribution.