44.2 forms of nitrogenous waste Flashcards Preview

Biology AP- 44 osmoregulation and excretion > 44.2 forms of nitrogenous waste > Flashcards

Flashcards in 44.2 forms of nitrogenous waste Deck (11)
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1
Q

wastes that vary in toxicity and energy costs of producing them

A

ammonia
urea
uric acid

2
Q

What is needed for ammonia excretion

A

water becuae it can only be tolerated in small concentrations

3
Q

how does ammonia get excreted?

A
  • its highly soluble so it diffuses straight through the membrane
  • fishes: gills or in minor amounts through the kidneys
  • invertebrates; across entire body
4
Q

most mammals, adult amphibians, sharks, and turtles excrete

A

urea

5
Q

urea

A
  • produced in the liver

- combines ammonia with carbon dioxide

6
Q

pros and cons or urea

A

pro: low toxicity, less water
con: energy cost

7
Q

insects, land snails, and reptiles, and birds excrete

A

uric acid

8
Q

uric acid

A
  • nontoxic
  • does not dissolve in water
  • semisolid paste with little water
9
Q

pros and cons of uric acid

A

pro: little to no water
con: more energy than even urea

10
Q

uric acid in other animals

A

-all animals make it due to purine breakdown

11
Q

what happens when the uric acid is insoluble

A
  • dalmatians form stones of uric acid in their bladder

- humans get gout: or uric acid crystals that inflame the joints