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Flashcards in 485 Crosswords Deck (89):
1

This is an essential n-6 fatty acid
(2 answers)

linoleic acid
omega 6

2

Another name for after a meal
(not the body state)

post-prandial

3

Glucogenic portion of a triglyceride

glycerol

4

This is formed when there is little glucose available.

ketone bodies

5

This type of calorimeter measures heat

direct calorimeter

6

This amino acid is typically released by the liver and taken up by the muscle tissue

leucine

7

This is used to determine fuel mixture

Hint. involves carbon dioxide and oxygen measurements

respiratory quotient

8

contains about 4 kcal/g gross energy, but little or no metabolizable energy for humans

fiber

9

This compound carries acetyl CoA from the mitochondria to the cytosol

citrate

10

major fatty acid in the brain

DHA

22 carbons
omega 3 is the precursor

11

its respiratory quotient is = 0.818

protein

12

compound that carries fatty acids into the mitochondria

carnitine

13

This organ uses about 20% of the BMR and gets it from glucose

brain

14

the BMR is closely related to this

lean body mass

15

These 2 amino acid are used in the synthesis of carnitine

methionine
lysine

16

Name two components of fatty acids

glycerol
fatty acids

17

This lipid is not a source of energy

Hint. what else is lipids used for

cholesterol

18

This enzyme frees fatty acids from trglycerides in LDL

lipoprotein lipase

19

What is a major energy source for the intestinal mucosa

glutamine

20

This compound results in a small energy loss for the body as urine.

urea

21

This is a 20 carbon, omega 6 fatty acid that can be used to form prostaglandins

hint. not omega 6 (linoleic acid)

arachidonic acid

22

What does RMR stand for

resting metabolic rate

23

This process accounts for 65% of the total energy expenditure

RMR (resting metabolic rate)

24

Another word for heat production

hint. use latin

thermogenesis

25

This type of calorimeter measures oxygen use

indirect

26

a unit of heat used in nutrition field

kcal

27

What is an oligosaccharide-containing cell surface layer of a membrane

glycocalyx

28

catalase is found here in cells

peroxisomes

29

GLUT 4 is regulated by this hormone

insulin

30

What is the amino acid component of bile

hint. not one of the 20 AA

taurine

31

What monosaccharide has an active transport process in the small intestines?

Glucose

32

another term for intestinal bacteria

microflora

33

Where in the GI tract is the most water absorbed?

small intestines

34

This serves as the cell's digestive system

lysosomes

35

Name this major polar compound in membranes

phosphoglyceride

36

This molecule is co-absorbed with glucose in the small intestines

sodium

37

another name for table sugar

sucrose

38

this is also known as programmed cell death

apoptosis

39

If detected in blood, this can indicate myocardial infarction

creatine kinase

"Elevation of CK is an indication of damage to muscle. It is therefore indicative of injury, rhabdomyolysis, myocardial infarction, myositis and myocarditis. The use of statin medications, which are commonly used to decrease serum cholesterol levels, may be associated with elevation of the CPK level in about 1% of the patients taking these medications, and with actual muscle damage in a much smaller proportion."
-wikipedia

40

What is a membrane compound that includes carbohydrates and fat

glycolipid

41

The name for foods that contain live micro-organisms

probiotic

42

what are foods and food components for "good" bacteria called.

prebiotic

43

"essentially the reversal of glycolysis."

the opposite pathway of glycolysis is?

gluconeogenesis

44

This hormone inhibits gastric motility and stimulates the gallbladder

cholecystokinin (CCK)

45

This monosaccharide has a facilitative transporter in the small intestine

fructose

"GLUT5 is a fructose transporter expressed on the apical border of enterocytes in the small intestine. GLUT5 allows for fructose to be transported from the intestinal lumen into the enterocyte by facilitated diffusion due to fructose's high concentration in the intestinal lumen. GLUT5 is also expressed in skeletal muscle, testis, kidney, fat tissue, and brain."
-wikipedia

46

If insulin is up, than this is down

glucagon

47

Dehydrogenase and hydroxylase are in this class of enzyme types

oxidoreductase

enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from a molecule being reduced to a molecule being oxidized.

48

biosynthetic

hint. the PROCESS of "synthetic" from "bio"

anabolic

49

name the 3 common monosaccharides

galactose
glucose
fructose

50

name the 3 common disaccharides

sucrose
lactose
maltose

bonus: can you name the 2 monosaccharides that make up each disaccharide

51

name the monosaccharide in lactose
(not glucose)

galactose

52

the expressed DNA sequences

exons

53

The pathway (process) that breaks down molecules

catabolic

54

Term for bile circulation

enterohepatic

55

what is the disaccharide that comes from starch

maltose

56

This is the progessive wave-like motion that occurs in the GI tract

peristalsis

57

This complements adenine

thymine

58

name the purines

adenine
guanine

59

name the pyrimidines

thymine
cytosine
uracil

60

Bile and pancreatic secretions enter here in the GI tract

(Specifically)

duodenum

61

Proenzymes are called

zymogens

62

Oxaloacetate + acetyl CoA = _______

citrate

63

This regenerates ATP the quickest

creatine phosphate

64

The production of this helps to conserve protein in starvation

ketones

65

An overnight fast will deplete this in the liver

glycogen

66

Kidneys produce _______ from glutamine

ammonia

67

Most of the body is made up of ________

water

68

muscle production of _______ declines during starvation

lactate

69

Carbon dioxide divided by oxygen

respiratory quotient

70

oxygen consumption is measured in _________ ___________

indirect calorimetry

71

In exercise, use of this increases as glycogen is depleted

protein

72

Oxidation of this is very active in muscle at 20 minutes into a marathon

fatty acids

73

___________ is a potential ergogenic aid that affects the brain and fat cells

caffeine

74

Weight and height in one number

BMI

75

State that begins following 18 hours of no food intake

fasting

76

_____ is the main energy source during the first 5 minutes of a marathon

glucose

77

_______ is the hormone that facilitates fat storage in adipocytes.

insulin

78

Heat is measured in ___________ __________

direct calorimetry

79

_______ is a non lactate use by red blood cells

hexose monosphosphate shunt

80

What is the amino acid precursor of serotonin

tryptophan

81

What hormone triggers fat mobilization from adipocytes

glucagon

82

Both bod pod and underwater weighing use __________

densitometry

83

What is the glucogeogenic compound that is released by muscle.

alanine

What is the alanine cycle again?

84

What type of cell lacks a mitochondria

red blood cells

85

What is the essential fatty acid percentage for males and females

males - 3%
females - 12 %

86

essential fatty acids comprise of what things? (organs, processes, etc)

central nervous system
membrane phospholipids
essential organs

87

This system provides most of the energy for the first 10 secs of a marathon

ATP-CP
creatine phosphate

88

What is the state after eating called

fed

89

glucagon promotes increase of ________ in adipocytes

cAMP

(and lipolysis)