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Flashcards in 5) Small & large intestine Deck (11):

Imaging modalities (5)

- xray
- CT
- MRI: great for soft tissue
- Endoscopy: small intestines limited because of endoscope issues
- US: can be combined w/ colonoscopy. Can be challenging as colon can be filled with gas (not good for US)


small intestine (typically studied with...)

- typically studied with barium, single or double contrast intubated enteroclysis (catheter in nose --> duodenum --> C+ injected. For xray, CT, MRI)
- enteroclysis is when you can see catheter in image
- neutral contrast, easier to analyse walls



- enteritis = small intestine
- colitis = large intestine
>>> SI with abscess


Crohns disease (pathological features - 5, asc. & trnsv affected... sig & rec affected... )

- can effect whole abdomen
- death can be consequence of rupture
- Pathological features include
> serositis and wall thickening
> strictures, mucosal oedema, mucosal ulcer
> decrease of folds
> advanced: fat proliferation
> fistula: body creates new path for disposal
- Ascending and transverse colon affected --> lacking folds. Sigmoid and rectum affected --> normal folds


Ulcerative colitis (radiological signs - 3)

- superficial ulcerations, oedema
- Radiological signs: confluent, circumferential, superficial ulcerations, granula mucosa, collar button ulcers


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis (4 points)

- saccular outpouching through colon wall
- usually multiple, occuring in clusters
- almost always involved sigmoid, never rectum
- diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula and complicates 20% of diverticulosis


Obstruction (causes, radiographic appearance, distinguishing small from large)

- several causes: mass (most common), volvulus, invagination/intussusception, FB
- Radiographic appearance
> didstended bowel loops containing air and fluid
> In erect, can see horizontal line between fluid and air
> if central, it's SBO
> if lateral, its LBO



- occurs when bowel twists around its mesentery
- diffuse dilation of bowel containing large amount of air
- "coffee bean" sign


Celiac disease (cause, features - 4)

- main cause is loss of villi, leads to small bowel malabsorption
- features: duodenitis, moulage, dilatation, flocculation


Tumours (main one and sign, what's a great way to determine type, texure of types, what do we need for small bowel tumour detection and why, most cancers arise from, common sign, signs for lymphoma)

- Adenocarcinoma is main one: thick walls is a sign
- enhancement is a great way to determine tumour type
- Adenocarcinoma: many grey colours
- lymphoma: homogeneous
- need imaging to detect small bowel tumour as biopsy is difficult --> don't want to risk perforation
- most cancers arise from pre existing polyps
- apple core constricting lesions
- lymphoma: thickened walled infiltrating mass, with aneurysmal dilation without obstruction


Hernia (4 externals)

External hernia
- incisional H
- umbilical H
- Inguinal H
- femoral H

Internal H