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Flashcards in Organelles Deck (24)
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1
Q

Name 4 functions of the cytoplasm

A
  • Contains cell organelles
  • Transport medium
  • Fatty acid synthesis
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis), amino acids and nucleotides using enzymes
2
Q

Name 2 functions of lysosomes, and what are lysosomes rich in? Name a cell type that will have many lysosomes?

A
  • Cellular digestion
  • Detoxification & removal of waste
  • Hydrolytic enzymes e.g. Proteases
  • Macrophages - phagocytic
3
Q

Name 3 functions of Golgi in preparing proteins from the RER?

A
  • Modifying
  • Sorting
  • Packaging ready for export
4
Q

What is the function of mitochondria?

A

ATP synthesis via Krebs Cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation

5
Q

What is the major role of smooth ER, and what two kinds of cells may have an abundance of smooth ER?

A
  • Lipid/steroid synthesis

- Adipocytes and Steroidogenic cells e.g. In gametes

6
Q

What happens in the Rough ER? How does the product travel to the Golgi?

A
  • Protein synthesis

- Pinched off in vesicles towards Golgi

7
Q

Name 3 important functions of the nucleus.

A
  • Contains cell genetic material
  • DNA synthesis and repair occurs here
  • Transcription (mRNA synthesis for protein synthesis) occurs here
8
Q

What are two functions of the plasma membrane?

A
  • Selective import/export of molecules to protect integrity of cell
  • Cell morphology
9
Q

What occurs on ribosomes? Why are there only a few types of ribosomal DNA but lots of types of mRNA?

A
  • Protein synthesis using mRNA and tRNA on the rough ER
  • Because ribosomes are the units which under control of tRNA form polypeptide chains. They have a distinct function so have limited types. mRNA is used to make 1000s different proteins for cell life, so a different mRNA is needed for each of those proteins.
10
Q
Name 7 functions of plasma membrane
S
T
E
E
I
I
S
A
Selective Permeability
Transport of materials along cell surface
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
Intercellular adhesion
Intercellular recognition
Signal Transduction
11
Q

What is the limit of resolution?

A

The point at which two points can no longer be seen as separate. ie. they appear as one structure

12
Q

What are 3 differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic (e.g. Bacterial) cells?

A

Prokaryotic cells have no separate nucleus
They have a cell wall and plasma membrane
They lack most organelles

13
Q

Do prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells have internal membranes?

A

Eukaryotic

14
Q

How is a phospholipid molecule made up and what does amphipathic mean?

A

Hydrophillic phosphate head, hydrophobic fatty acid tail and it means it is both hydrophobic and phillic

15
Q

What is the glycocalyx?

A

Cell coat made up of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

16
Q

What is the difference between where free ribosomes and ER ribosomes release proteins to?

A

Free - cytoplasm

Bound - into ER lumen

17
Q

________ (which organelles) fuse with material requiring digestion

A

Lysosomes

18
Q

How are lysosomes formed?

A

Late endosomes (from endocytosed material) + Phagosomes + Autophagosomes

19
Q

What do peroxisomes do?

A

Detoxify (oxidise) a number of chemicals e.g. Alcohol

20
Q

What is different about Mitochondrial DNA/division

A

It is similar to bacterial and divides on it’s own genetic information - not held in nucleus. It’s lineage is female

21
Q

What do microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules make up? Whats its role? What are microfilaments/intermediate filaments?

A

Make up cytoskeleton

Microfilaments - actin
Intermediate - can be different things e.g. Keratin
Microtubules

Role in cell shape, strength, mitosis/meiosis, transport around cell. movement.

22
Q

What are microtubules made of?

A

Tubulin - hollow cylinders found where structures move e.g. Mitosis spindle/cilia/flagella

23
Q

What is the arrangement of microtubules in cilia/flagella?

A

9+2 (2 in middle of circle). Dyanin arms round the circle.

24
Q

What are autophagosomes vs phagosomes vs endosomes?

A

Endo - endocytosed material
Phagosomes - phagocytosed material
Autophagosomes - intracellular vesicular material aimed for lysosomes etc to degrade