Define hydrophilic in terms of bonds
Hydrophilic molecules have polar covalent bonds - e.g. That one of the atoms is more electronegative than the other (significantly higher affinity for electrons). More polar bonds at one end of the molecule makes it more hydrophillic- i.e. Polar bonds that are symmetrical the molecule is less hydrophillic.
Name 3 common bonds that are polar
Also ionic compounds with + or - charge
Bilayers are formed by _________ molecules because __________
Amphipathic, phillic ends attracted to cytoplasm, phobic ends repel.
If you know the conc of H+ ions what equation finds the pH?
pH = -log [H+]
If you know the pH what equation finds the conc of H+ ions?
10^-pH = [H+]
For a ________ decrease in pH the H+ conc is ____________
How does the bicarbonate buffering system work? (Equation & Enzyme). What happens to the equilibrium when you add/remove H+ ions?
CO2 + H20 -> H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+
Carbonic anhydrase catalysts the first bit
Add H+ = shifts to left, Remove H+ = shifts to right
What is the Henderson Hasslebach equation and what can it be used to work out?
pH = pKa + log [base
Can be used to find out pH, pKa, base:acid ratio, base/acid concentration
What effect does hyperventilation and pulmonary obstruction have on pH?
Increase as more CO2 is expelled so less carbonic acid made.
Pulmonary obstruction would decrease pH as CO2 retained due to problem getting air out.