Pathoma - Kidney, Urinary tract pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathoma - Kidney, Urinary tract pathology Deck (17)
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1
Q

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease associated with…

A

–> congenital hepatic fibrosis. consider this diagnosis in an infant with portal hypertension. also can see hepatic cysts.

–> newborns may present with potter sequence.

cysts in renal cortex and medulla

2
Q

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with…

A

berry aneurysm, hepatic cysts, mitral valve prolapse

cysts in the renal cortex and medulla

3
Q

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease mutations

A

APKD1, APKD2

4
Q

dysplastic kidney

A

NON-INHERITED. malformation of renal parenchyma with cysts and abnormal tissue.

5
Q

medullary cystic kidney disease

A

cysts in the medullary collecting duct.

shrunken kidneys due to fibrosis.

6
Q

causes of acute tubular necrosis

A
aminoglycosides 
heavy metals
myoglobinuria 
ethylene glycol
radiocontrast dye 
urate (from tumor lysis syndrome)
7
Q

ATN clinical features

A
  • muddy brown casts
  • elevated BUN creatinine
  • hyperkalemia
  • metabolic acidosis (decreased excretion of organic acids).
8
Q

Acute Interstitial Nephritis causes

A

drug induced hypersensitivity reaction
NASIDs
Penicillin
Diuretics

9
Q

Acute Interstitial Nephritis clinical findings

A

oliguria, fever, rash in days to weeks after starting a drug.
–> eosinophils in the urine

  • usually resolves with cessation of the drug but can continue on to papillary necrosis.
10
Q

nephrotic syndrome

A

protein loss greater than 3.5 g per day

  • hypoalbuminemia - edema
  • hypogammaglobulinemia - increased risk of infection
  • hypercoaguable state - loss of antithrombin 3
  • hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia - fatty casts in the urine
11
Q

minimal change disease

A
  • usually idiopathic, but can be associated with hodgkins lymphoma.
  • most common cause of nephrotic disease in children
12
Q

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

A

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in patients with HIV, IVDA, and sickle cell disease

–> will also see foot process effacement in this disorder.

13
Q

minimal change disease treatment

A

steroids, excellent response

14
Q

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis treatment

A

steroids, poor response. patients often progress to chronic renal failure.

15
Q

Membranous nephropahty

A

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in caucasian adults. can be associated with Hep B/C, SLE, some drugs.

  • note that patients with SLE presenting with nephrotic syndrome will have this.
16
Q

Membranous nephropahty pathophysiology

A

thickening of basement membrane due to immune complex deposition just beneath the podocyte. can detect with IF, will appear granular.

17
Q

Angiomyolipoma

associated with…

A

hamartoma composed of blood vessel, smooth muscle, and adipose

–> increased frequency in patients with tuberous sclerosis