Pathoma - GI pathology Flashcards
cleft lip and palate
failure of facial prominences to fuse
superficial, painful ulceration
greyish base, surrounded by erythema
recurrent aphthous ulcers + genital ulcers and uveitis
oral herpes remains dormant in
the ganglia of the trigeminal nerve
white plaque that cannot be scarped away. it often represents squamous cell dysplasia.
hairy leukoplakia - associated virus and prognosis
shaggy rough patch on the lateral aspect of the tongue. Due to EBV. Associated with an immunocompromised state and represents hyperplasia –> not dysplastic cells, NOT precancerous.
- vascularized leukoplakia. suggesting some new blood vessel growth, HIGHLY suggestive of squamous dysplasia.
salivary major glands
Mumps - presentation and complications
infection with mumps virus giving bilateral inflammed parotids.
Orchitis leading to sterility is a complication.
Pancreatitis is also a complication
- amylas may be elevated due to pancreatitis or inflammation of oral salivary glands.
- usually due to a staph aureus infection.
Pleomorphic adenoma - presentation and prognosis
- most common tumor of the salivary gland
- often presents at the parotid is a mobile, circumscribed, painless mass.
- -> benign tumor composed of stromal and epithelial tissue.
- has a high rate of recurrence due to incomplete resection (tumor has irregular borders making resection difficult)
- can rarely progress to carcinoma, will present with facila nerve symptoms signifying invasion.
- cystic tumor with lymph node tissue. almost always arises in the parotid. 2nd most common tumor of the parotid.
mucus producing cells and squamous cells. It is a malignant tumor and will commonly involve the facial nerve.
protrusion of the mucosa
presents of dysphagia for poorly chewed food
increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
Plummer Vinson syndrome
severe iron deficiency anemia esophageal web atrophic glossitis (beefy red tongue)
outpouching of mucosa through acquired defect in the muscular wall. Found at the junction of the esophagus and the pharynx.
–> a false diverticulum
dysphagia for both solids and liquids due to loss of esophageal motility.
Also have inability to relax LES.
–> bird beak sign on barium swallow
- will have high lower esophageal sphincter pressure on manometry.
–> damage to ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus. Damage can be idiopathic or Chagas disease
increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
LES is not as tight as it should be. Acid and gastric contents go into the lower esophagus.
–> metaplasia of the cells from non-keratinzing squamous epithelium to non-ciliated columnar cells with goblet cells.
Clinical/complications features of GERD
- adult onset asthma
- damage to enamel of the teeth
- ulceration with stricture of lower esophagus
- Barret esophagus
Esophageal carcinoma - subtypes
- adenocarcinoma most common in the West. Malignant proliferation if glands. Found in the lower 1/3rd of the esophagus. arises from barrets esophagus.
- squamous cell carcinoma, the most common esophageal cancer worldwide. upper portion of the esophagus. it is from IRRITATION.
causes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
- alcohol tabacco
- very hot tea
- achalasia (rotting backed up food irritates)
- esophageal web (this protrusion of the mucosa blocks food, rots, irritates the mucosa)
- esophageal injury (lye ingestion)
presentation of esophageal carcinoma
- poor prognosis as it presents late, they have progressive dysphagia (solids then liquids). weight loss may also be a presenting symptom.
congential malformation of the abdominal wall. exposure of contents without covering of peritoneum. to the right of umbilicus.
persistent herniation of the bowel into the into the umbilicus, does not return to the body cavity during development. this herniation is covered by peritoneum.