6/9 Flashcards Preview

Virology HO > 6/9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6/9 Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...
1

ways to "break the chain" of trasmission

1. neutralize host
2. interrupt mode of transmission
3. protect portals
4. immunization or treatment

2

Ws of immunization

where- endemic areas
when - disease season (vector bourne), during outbreak of non endemic areas
who - population at risk
why - the loss caused by the dz must be greater than the cost of immunization

3

features of good vax

safe to use
minimum side fx
effective against wide spectrum of pathogens
cheap
long shelf life, minimal storage requirements- delivery, thermostability
long lasting appropriate protection
easy to administer
benefits outweigh risks

4

live attenuated vax

edward jenner.
(naturally occurring )
protect chickens against Merks dz by giving similar turkey dz

5

attenuation

lose virulence, maintain antigenicity

6

production of live attenuated vax

rinderpest in rabbits- virus attenuates.
intentionally induce mutations: cold adapted mutant viruses. Influnza virus cannot replicat at 37degree c. only at 33. can no longer replicate in the lung and cause lung damage.

7

killed vax

inactivated, antigenicity retained

8

inactivated virus vax

require larger amounts of virus
need adjuvants

9

vax produced by recombinant DNA and related tech

reduce risk of virus reverting back and cause dz. intentionally induce mutations
select gene from virus expressing antigenic protein and chop off and put into harmless virus.

10

DIVA

differentiating infected from vaccinated
natural infection vs vaccinated.
both will induce produce Ab.
subunit vax

11

subunit vax

DIVA
prepare vaccine with only one of the antigens present in the wild type virus that may have 3 antigens. vaccinated animal will test positive for only this Ab rather than a sick animal which will test for all 3. very safe (only protein)

12

vector control

source reduction: breeding sources. prevent rain water accumulation. don't build houses out of poop.
biological control:natural enemies that eat vectors
Chemical control: insecticides , larvacides, adultacides

13

isolation

animals known to be ill with a contagious dz, tested pos or showing clinical signs

14

quarentine

animals that have been exposed... may or may not have clinical signs or test pos.

15

population control program

restrict mvmt of the animals, control reservoir

16

quarantine and culling

restrict mvmt and slaughter animals, dispose carcass
bury very deep away from water supply or burn

17

decontamination

process that renders surface or equipment safe to handle several types

18

sterilization

destroy all forms of microbial life *superior*

19

disinfections

eliminate many pathogenic, not effective on some spore forming bacteria.

20

antisepsis

decontamination of skin /live tissue

21

MERS

sister of SARS coronovirus
comes from camels

22

sentinel animals

serve as early warning systems of zoonotic dz
equine encephalitis
test caged birds in endemic areas, track mosquitoes and test, dying wild birds