6. Mucocutaneous Disorders COPY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6. Mucocutaneous Disorders COPY Deck (21)
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  • X-linked Recessive (Males)
  • Defect of skin and oral adnexal structures 
    • No sweat 
    • Dry skin 
    • Sparse blond hair
    • Few teeth (peg shaped)
    • Hypoplastic Salviary Glands
      • Xerostomia 
      • URI infections 
  • Depressed midface, frontal bossing, protuberabt lips 

Ectodermal Dysplasia


  • Autosomal Dominant
  • Mutation in keratin genes
  • Thick keratin under nails
  • Palmar and Plantar Hyperkeratosis
  • Diffuse white oral lesions primarily on dorsal and lateral tongue and buccla mucosa
  • Histo - Hyperparakeratosis and acanthosis with clear perinuclear spaces
  • No malignant potential 

Pachyonychia Congenita


  • Autosomal Dominant
  • Mutation in Keratin Genes
  • Thick white plaques throughout oral mucosa (buccal)
  • Histo - Hyperparakeratosis with acanthosis with "fried egg cells" (clear keratinocytes with pink condensed cytoplasm around nucleus)

White Sponge Nevus 


  • X-linked Recessive (Males)
  • Impaired telmoerase
  • Skin pigmentation and nail changes
  • Pancytopenia (marrow failure) shortens lifespan to about age 30 
  • Widespread red and white oral lesions that transform into SCCA at early age 
  • Tx - Bone marrow transplant 

Dyskeratosis Congenita


  • Autosomal Recessive 
  • Disorder of chromosomal repair whereby epithelium cannot repair UV damage
  • Widespread skin atrophy and blotchy pigment/depigmentation
  • Lip and tip of tongue cancer 
  • Multipl sun induced cancers by age 20; most die by age 30
  • Tx - Pt must live in darkness

Xeroderma Pigmentosum 


  • Autosomal Dominant
  • Disorder of chromosomal repair - cells can't repair damaged DNA
  • Disease of RBC
    • Develop Aplastic anemia and Leukemia 
  • Widespread oral lesions that become SCCA at early age 
  • Microstomia
  • Disorders of thumb and radius 

Fanconi Anemia


  • Autosomal Dominant
  • Defective cohesion of keratinized cells
  • Multiple itchy, foul-smelling red papules all over trunk; worse in summer
  • 50% with intra-oral lesions on palate, resembling Papillary Hyperplasia
  • Tx - Vitamin A analogues

Darier Disease (Keratosis Follicularis)


Group of 21 genetic disorders characterized by epithelial attachemnt disorders of keratin, desmosomes or collagen causing skin and mucosal bullae

Epidermolysis Bullosa


  • Causes formation of bullae at points of mild trauma
  • They get infected and heal with scars resulting in loss of extermities 
  • Mouth and esophagus scars and is susceptible to SCCA

Recessive Dystrophic Type 


  • Affects 2% of Females > 40 years old
  • Type IV cytotoxic rxn where T8+ lymphocytes attack basal cells
  • Pruritic, scaly pink, violaceous or pigmented rhomboid plaques on flexor surfaces of wrists and ankles 
  • Criss-crossed by White Wickham Striae
  • Frequently infected by Candida

Lichen Planus 


Classic Wickman striae across buccal mucosa bilaterally - asymptomatic

Reticular LP


  • White striae on a background of red, peeling atrophic mucosa
  • Typical on gingiva as a desquamative gingivitis 

Atrophic LP


Peeling, well demarcated serpiginous (scaring) lesions 

Erosive LP


  • Flat, white patches with fissures 
  • Mostly seen on dorsal tongue

Plaquelike LP


Differential Diagnosis of Oral Lichen Planus (6)

  1. Dysplasia and SCC
  2. Benign Mucous Membrain Pemphigoid
  3. Lupus Erythematosus
  4. Graft vs. Host Ds
  5. Candidiasis
  6. Systemic and Local Hypersensitivity Rxns 


  • Men
  • Acute Type IV cyctotoxic hypersensitivity wherby T8+ lymphocytes attack epithelium
  • Etiology - Triggered by:
    • Herpes outbreak
    • Mycoplasma (URI)
    • Medications (antibiotics)
  • Causes a variety of skin lesions
    • Target lesions, Palmar and plantar lesions, Rash
  • Stevens-Johnson Sx 
    • oral, eye, genital 
  • Lyell's Syndrome (Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis)
    • Most serious form
    • Causes entire skin to slough 
    • Drug rxn 
    • frequently fatal 

Erythema Multiforme


  • Delicate blisters that quickley rupture
  • Histo
    • SUPRAbasilar clefting of epithelium
    • Loss of keratinocytes causing acantholysis
  • Type II Rxn IgG or IgM forms against intercellular cement and deposits around desmosomes causing cellbridges to fall apart 
  • Biopsy is Diagnostic 
  • Immunofluorescence - IgG forming a net surrounding each cell

Pemphigus Vulgaris


  • Autoimmune ds of all mucosa
  • Immunoglobulins made against BM
  • Causes SUBbasilar separation resulting in tense bulla and sloughing erosions 
  • Immunofluoresence - Linear band of IgG and C3 along BM zone

Benign Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid (BMMP)


  • Autoimmune Ds of Type III Hypersensitivity 
  • Women mostly 
  • Most typical skin lesion is the butterfly rash induced by sun exposre
  • Oral Manifestations are Lichenoid, affects palate, vermillion, buccal mucosa
  • Immunofluoresence - granular bands of immunoglobulins or C3 at bm (lupus band test)

Lupus Erythematosus


  • Autoimmune Ds in which there is a deposition of collagen throughout the body 
  • Adult women
  • Clinical 
    • Mask like face
    • Sclerodactyly
    • Raynaud Phenomenon
  • Oral 
    • Microstomia
    • Gingival recssion
    • Widening of PDL around all teeth
    • Resoprtion of posterior ramus, coronoid, and condyle



In Graft vs Host Ds, the graft T cells react against ...

host HLA antigens