Flashcards in 6.1: Aromatic compounds, carbonyls and acids Deck (22)
What were the 3 pieces of evidence that did not support Kekule's model?
1. Benzene resists to typical ADDITION
2. Enthalpy of hydrogenation is more STABLE than expected
3. All bonds are the same length
Explain what was expected of Benzene and what is actually true in terms of "Resistance to addition"
- Benzene expected to undergo electrophilic addition
- Benzene actually undergoes electrophilic substitution
(Kekule thought that benzene experiences a rapid dynamic equilibrium and double bonds alternate)
Explain what was expected of Benzene and what is actually true in terms of "Enthalpy of Hydrogenation"
- Benzene expected to have a ▲H of -360 kJ mol^-1
-What actually happened:
the ▲H of cyclohexene is -120 kJ mol^-1
the ▲H of Kekule's benzene is -360 kJ mol^-1
but Benzene is the difference between these two: 360-120 = -280 kJ mol^-1 MORE stable than predicted
Explain what was expected of Benzene and what is actually true in terms of "Bond lengths"
-Benzene expected to have alternating double bonds (different lengths)
-Benzene's 6 bonds actually are of the same length, according to X-Ray diffraction (0.140 nm)
What is the Revised Model of Benzene?
The DELOCALISED ELECTRON structure
Describe the Delocalised Electron structure (2)
- EACH carbon donates an electron from its P-ORBITAL
- Forms a ring of electrons ABOVE and BELOW the plane
What does the Delocalised Electron structure show in terms of its electron density and energy required to disrupt the delocalisation?
- LOW electron density
- so MORE ENERGY required to disrupt the delocalisation
What are "derivatives" when naming aromatic compounds?
Aromatic compounds where a H is substituted for a different group
What are 4 common groups and their prefixes?
1. Chlorine: Chloro-
2. Bromine: Bromo-
3. Nitro group: Nitro-
4. Alkyl chains: Methyl,ethyl, etc.
When a Hydrogen is removed from Benzene what is the prefix of that derivative called?
When a derivative is attached to a compounds but is NOT the focus, is it named as a prefix or a suffix?
Prefix (e.g. Benzene with a NH2 group is called PHENYLamine)
Give two examples of single-substituted aromatic compounds.
Methylbenzene (CH3 attached)
Chloromethylbenzene (CH2Cl attached)
How are double-substituted aromatic compounds named (3)?
1. Carbon attached to 1st group, Labelled '1'
2. Relative position of 2nd group found
3. Prefix written in ALPHABETICAL ORDER
Give an example of a double-substituted aromatic compound
2-chloromethylbenzene (CH3 is on the 1st carbon, Cl attached to 2nd carbon)
How are aromatic compounds named when multiples of the same group are substituted?
We use 'DI (2)' or 'TRI (3)'
Give an example of a multiple-substituted aromatic compound.
Define electrophilic substitution.
A SUBSTITUTION reaction where an ELECTROPHILE is attracted to an ELECTRON-RICH area and accepts a PAIR OF ELECTRONS.
Why do electrophilic substitution reactions occur in Benzene?
Because of it's high e- density.
Describe the general mechanism of electrophilic substitution.
1. Electrophile attracted to the delocalised e- ring
2. Accepts e- pair (this is the rate-determining step)
3. Delocalisation DISRUPTED and intermediate formed, the positive charge is spread over the ring.
4. Intermediate releases H+ (joins with the -ve ion)
State the reagents and conditions needed for the Nitration of Benzene (an electrophilic substitution reaction).
Reagents: CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID, CONCENTRATED NITRIC ACID
Conditions: 50 C, a higher temperature may cause multiple substitutions
State the overall reaction for the nitration of benzene.
C6H6 + HNO3 → C6H5NO2 + H2O