Visual Loss Flashcards Preview

Opthamology > Visual Loss > Flashcards

Flashcards in Visual Loss Deck (20)
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1
Q

List ten causes of sudden visual loss

A
  1. Acute closed angle gluacoma
  2. Retinal Detachment
  3. Wet macular degeneration
  4. Temporal arteritis
  5. Vitreous Haemmorhage
  6. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
  7. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
  8. Optic neuritis
  9. Amourosis Fugax
  10. Ischaemic optic neuropathy
2
Q

List four causes of gradual visual loss

A
  1. Cataracts
  2. Open angle gluacoma
  3. Dry macular degeneration
  4. Diabetic Retinopathy
3
Q

List six causes of cataracts

A
  1. Age
  2. Congenital
  3. Traumatic
  4. Metabolic (diabetic)
  5. Drug induced
  6. Intrauterine infection (rubella, CMV, toxoplasmosis)
4
Q

List three types of cataracts

A
  1. Nuclear sclerotic
  2. Cortical
  3. Posterior subcapsular
5
Q

What are the important things to ask about a patient presenting with visual loss?

A
  1. Sudden/Gradual
  2. Painful/Painless
  3. Extent (Total/Partial)
  4. Associated symptoms
  5. Past ocular history -myopia etc
  6. Past medical history - diabetes/hypertension
6
Q

What is the treatment for cataracts in the developed world?

A

Phaco - emulsification with intra ocular lens implantation

7
Q

What is dry ARMD?

A

Wear and tear of the retinal pigment epithelium

8
Q

In what type of visual loss do you see drusen on opthalmoscopy?

A

Dry macular degeneration

9
Q

What is wet ARMD?

A

The eye grows new blood vessels within the macula to repair dry ARMD damage. The vessels then leak fluid or bleed into the retinal tissue causing a sudden devastating drop in central vision with associated metamorphopsia

10
Q

What investigation would you do for wet armd?

A

Ocular coherance tomography

11
Q

What treatment could you give for wet armd?

A

Anti VEGf injections

Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit the growth of abnormal blood vessels

12
Q

Sudden, profound visual loss (<6/60)
Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD)
Pale swollen retina with cherry red spot at macula

A

Central retinal artery occlusion

13
Q

What is the treatment for a CRAO?

A
Treatment is only effective if patient seen within 24 hrs. 
Occular massage
Paper bag breathing 
IV Diamox
Anterior chamber paracentesis
14
Q
Moderate to severe visual loss
RAPD
Retinal flame haemorrhages (stormy sunset)
Tortuous vessels
Swollen disc
Cotton wool spots
A

Central retinal vein occlusion

15
Q

Persisting flashing lights
Burst of new floaters
Dark shadow in peripheral vision, increasing in size

A

Retinal detachment

16
Q

Who is more likely to get a retinal detachment?

A

Myopics (short sighted)

17
Q

If you fins a retinal tear what treatment can be given to reduce the chance of detachment?

A

Laser

18
Q

What are the options for treatment of a retinal detachment?

A

Scleral buckle

Vitrectomy/Laser therapy/Gas bubble

19
Q

Variable loss of vision, usually over few days
Washed out colours
Dull ache on eye movements

A

Optic neuritis

20
Q

What is the most common cause of optic neuritis?

A

Demyelination..MS