7. Cellular Responses To Stress And Noxious Stimuli: Adaptations And Differentiation, Cell Injury And Cell Death Flashcards Preview

FMS: Pathology > 7. Cellular Responses To Stress And Noxious Stimuli: Adaptations And Differentiation, Cell Injury And Cell Death > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7. Cellular Responses To Stress And Noxious Stimuli: Adaptations And Differentiation, Cell Injury And Cell Death Deck (21):
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1. List and describe cellular adaptations (reversible changes) that can be seen during cellular insult (hypertrophy; hyperplasia; atrophy; metaplasia) (objective)

Answer later

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2. List and define causes of cellular injury (e.g., infectious, immunologic, nutritional, genetic) and correlate with clinical signs and symptoms (objective)

Answer later

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3. List 6 patterns of necrosis and describe the usual organ/tissue type associated with each type (objective)

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4. List key mechanisms for intracellular accumulations seen in manifestations of metabolic derangements during cellular injury and give examples of each (objective)

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5. Identify clinical conditions in which pathologic calcifications can be observed (objective)

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VINDICATE'M

Vascular
Inflammatory/Infectious
Neoplastic
Degenerative/Deficiency/Drugs
Idiopathic/Intoxication/Iatrogenic
Congenital
Autoimmune/Allergic/Anatomic
Traumatic
Endocrine/Environmental
Metabolic

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Causes of Cell Injury

Oxygen Deprivation (Vascular)
Chemical Agents (Intoxication)
Infectious Agents (Infectious)
Immunologic Reactions (Inflammatory)
Genetic Factors (Congenital)
Nutritional Imbalances (Environmental;Metabolic)
Physical Agents (Trauma)

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Cellular Adaptations (list)

Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Atrophy
Metaplasia

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Hypertrophy

Increase in size of cells, that results in an increase in the size of the affected organ (induced by growth factors)

Most common stimulus is increased workload

Occurs in tissues incapable of cell division

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Hyperplasia

Increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue in response to a stimulus

Common cause: Growth factor-driven proliferation of mature cells

In tissues whose cells can divide or have a lot of stem cells

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Metaplasia

Reversible change in which one differentiated cell type (epithelial or mesenchymal) is replaced by another cell type
Most common epithelial metaplasia is columnar to squamous (respiratory tract in response to chronic irritation)
Connective tissue metaplasia: formation of cartilage, bone or adipose tissue
In response to chronic irritation, usually induced by altered differentiation pathway of tissue stem cells, may result in reduced functions or increased propensity for malignant transformation

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Atrophy

Reduction in size of an organ or tissue due to decrease in cell size and number
Result of decreased nutrient supply or disuse; associated with decreased synthesis of cellular building blocks and increased breakdown of cellular organelles

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Oxygen Deprivation (clues)

Cyanotic, lowered oxygen saturation, carbon dioxide and monoxide, vascular will point to focal neurological deficits

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Chemical Agents (clues)

AMS, drug use, pupil change

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Infectious Agents (clues)

Fever, low glucose in CFS, low neutrophils or lymphocytes

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Immunologic Reactions (clues)

Redness, heat, swelling, hives, distribution might be bilateral

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Genetic Factors (clues)

Born with it

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Nutritional Imbalances (clues)

Diet changes, bypass

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Physical Agents (clues)

History of trauma

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Dystrophic

Localized, focal

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Metastatic

High serum calcium levels, whole body, systemic