7 - Fertility, Population and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7 - Fertility, Population and Development Deck (31):
1

2050 population

9.6b

2

2010 population

6.892b

3

Structure of world's population

- Geographic region
- Fertility and mortality trends
- Rate of population increase
- Birth rates, death rates
- Total fertility rates
- Age structure and dependency burdens

4

2050 population growth coming from

Africa

15% --> 22%

5

Rate of population increase

The growth rate of a population, calculated as the natural increase after adjusting for immigration and emigration

6

Natural increase

Difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a given population

7

Net international migration

The excess of persons migrating into a country over those who emigrate from that country

8

Crude birth rate

The number of children born alive each year per 1,000 population

9

Crude death rate

Number of deaths per year per 1000 people
- Fallen significantly in recent years

10

Total fertility rate (TFR)

Number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with the prevailing age-specific fertility rates

11

Life expectancy at birth

Number of years a newborn child would live if subjected to the mortality risks prevailing for the population at the time of the child's birth
- about 12 years greater in developed countries
- gap fallen significantly in recent years

12

Under 5 mortality rate

Deaths among children between birth and 5 years of age per 1,000 live births
- significant progress made

13

Youth dependency ratio

The proportion of young people under age 15 to the working population aged 16 to 64 in a country

14

Momentum of population growth

Phenomenon whereby population continues to increase even after a fall in birth rates because the large existing youthful population expands the population's base of potential parents

15

Two reasons for momentum of population growth

1) high birth rates cannot be altered overnight

2) age structure of developing countries' population

16

Demographic transitions:

Process - fertility rates decline to low and stable levels

Pre-industrial society --> modernization --> falling fertility rates

17

Pre-industrial society: "high growth potential stage"

stable/slow growing populations since high birth rates but also high deaths rates

18

Modernisation 'transitional growth stage'

better public health, diets, incomes, incomes

reductions in mortality and rising life expectancies. Fall in death rates NOT immediately accompanied by falling fertility rates. Leads to rapid population growth

19

Falling fertility rates "incipient decline stage"

falling birth rates, falling death rates leading to little or no population growth

20

Birth rates in developing world considerably higher

- women tend to marry earlier
- more families for given population size
- more years in which to have children

21

1950s/60s death rates fell much more quickly since:

imported effective modern medicine

22

Malthusian population trap

the idea that rising population and diminishing returns to fixed factors (land) result in low levels of living (population trap)

- as population increases each person has less land to work with
- marginal contribution to food production falls

23

Malthus critique:

- Ignores the role and impact of technological progress

- no empirical evidence to support relationship between population growth and levels per capita income

- per capita income is not the principal determinant of population

24

Household theory of fertility

- fertility as a rational response: maximize utility
- first 2 or 3 children "consumer goods"
- additional children "investment goods"

25

Fertility may be lowered with:

- improved women's education
- female nonagricultural wage employment
- rise in family income levels
- reduction in infant mortality, better health care
- lowered prices and better information on contraceptives
- subsidy benefits

26

Real problem not population growth but rather:

- underdevelopment
- world resource depletion and environmental destruction
- population distribution
- subordination of women

27

Population growth real problem:

- poverty
- adverse impact on education
- adverse impact on health
- food constraints

28

Consensus:

- population is not the primary cause of lower living levels
- rapid population increase likely to exacerbate various issues

29

Policy approaches

- attend to underlying socioeconomic conditions that impact development
- family planning programs should provide education and technological means to regulate fertility
- Address gender bias, causes of boy preference

30

What developing countries can do:

- Persuasion through education
- Family planning programs
- Address incentives for having children
- Raise socioeconomic status of women
- Increase employment opportunities for women

31

What developed countries can do:

- Adress resource use inequities
- More open migration policies